第3课 约翰福音,第2 & 3章

耶稣: 神的儿子

At this time Jesus had 6 disciples (Peter, Andrew, James, John, Philip and Nathanael). These would serve as the witnesses of Jesus’ first miracle, as He began to reveal Himself as true God, the Son of the Heavenly Father. 那时耶稣有六个门徒(彼得,安得烈,雅各,约翰,腓力和拿但业)。他们都是耶稣第一次所行神迹的见证人,因为他开始显明自己是真神,是天父的儿子。 As this chapter begins, Jesus had left the place where John the Baptist was baptizing (Bethany beyond Jordan – John 1:28) and had traveled to into Galilee near the town where He grew up. He went to Cana, the hometown of Nathanael (John 21:2), to attend a wedding feast. Cana’s exact location is uncertain, but many believe that it was located a few miles north of Nazareth in Galilee. 在这一章开始时,耶稣已经离开施洗约翰施洗的地方(约但河外的伯大尼—约翰福音1:28),来到靠近他长大的城镇加利利。他去拿但业的家乡迦拿(约翰福音21:2)去参加婚宴。迦拿的确切位置尚不清楚,但许多人认为它位于加利利拿撒勒以北几英里处。 We notice that Mary is simply called “the mother of Jesus” in the gospel of John. Her name is never mentioned. See another example of this in John 19:25-27. The text does not say that Mary was invited, only that she was there. Perhaps she was there to assist in the wedding, and that is how she became aware of an embarrassing situation. 我们注意到马利亚在约翰福音中被简单地称为“耶稣的母亲”。她的名字从未被提及。另一个例子见约翰福音19:25-27。文中没有说马利亚被邀请了,只说她在那里。也许她在那儿帮忙办婚礼,所以才会意识到那场尴尬的局面。

Read John 2:1-11 (Jesus changes water into wine) 读约翰福音2:1-11(耶稣变水为酒)

  1. What problem arose at the wedding at Cana?

  2. What did Mary expect when she came to Jesus and told Him that there was a shortage of wine? 马利亚来到耶稣那里,告诉他酒不够了。马利亚对耶稣有怎样的期待?

In verse 4 Jesus addresses his mother as “dear woman.” Some people think that this sounds a bit cold or even disrespectful. When Jesus called her “woman” this was not being rude or disrespectful. Remember that she had come to Him not because He was her son, but because He was her Lord. And now Jesus answered her, not as her son, but as her Lord. This was a simple, informal form of address, the typical way that Jesus addressed women in John’s Gospel. Check out these references: 在第4节,耶稣称呼他的母亲为“亲爱的妇人”。有些人认为这听起来有点冷酷,甚至无礼。当耶稣称呼她“妇人”时,并不是无礼,也不是不敬。要记住,她来见他不是因为他是她的儿子,而是因为他是她的主。而且现在耶稣回答她的方式不是以她儿子的身份来回答她,而是作为她的主的身份在回答她。这是一种简单、非正式的称呼,是约翰福音中耶稣称呼妇女的典型方式。查看这些参考资料 • John 4:21 Jesus declared, “Believe me, woman, a time is coming when you will worship the Father neither on this mountain nor in Jerusalem.” 约4:21耶稣宣告:“妇人,你当信我,时候将到,你们拜父,不在这山上, 也不在耶路撒冷。” • John 19:26 When Jesus saw his mother there, and the disciple whom he loved standing nearby, he said to his mother, “Dear woman, here is your son,” 约翰福音19:26耶稣看见母亲和他所爱的那门徒站在旁边,就对母亲说“母亲(原文作“妇人”),看,你的儿子!” • John 20:13 They asked her, “Woman, why are you crying?” 约翰福音20:13 天使对她说:“妇人,你为什么哭?”

We need to remember that Jesus is also our Lord. He is our Savior, who has died for us, and we must trust in Him. But He is also our Lord, who is over us, and we must obey Him.

  1. Why did Jesus tell Mary, “Why do you involve me? My time has not yet come”? 耶稣为什么对马利亚说:“我与你有什么相干?我的时候还没有到”?

In spite of Jesus’ answer to her, Mary still expected that Jesus would solve the problem. She trusted that He could and would help when the time was right. So she simply instructed the servants, “Do whatever he tells you.” 尽管耶稣那样回答了她,马利亚仍然期望耶稣会解决这个问题。她相信他能够而且会在适当的时候给予帮助。于是吩咐仆人说:“他告诉你们什么,你们就去做什么。” And when His time was right, Jesus approached them and told them to fill six huge stone jars, that would each hold 60-100 liters) with water. Where would they get all that water? They could not just turn on the faucet until the jars were full. Not back then! They would need to go to the city well, or the spring, or wherever Cana’s water supply was. Can you imagine what they might say as they make trip after trip to the well carrying heavy buckets or skins filled with water? “What is that rabbi going to do with all this water? Doesn’t He know how hard this is? This doesn’t make any sense!” 到了时候,耶稣进前来,吩咐他们把六个大缸装满水,每缸可盛六十至一百升。他们从哪里弄到那么多水?他们不能像我们一样打开水龙头就可以把罐子装满。那个时候还不行!他们需要到城里的水井或泉水,或任何有供水的地方去取。你能想象他们一次又一次地提着装满水的桶或皮袋来到井边时,他们会说些什么话吗?“那个拉比要这么多水干嘛?难道他不知道打这些水有多困难吗?真是想不通!” Sound familiar? When Jesus tells you to do something, perhaps you might also object that it’s too hard or it doesn’t make any sense. It didn’t make sense to the fishermen, when Jesus told them. “Cast out into the deep water. Throw your net on the right side of the boat.” Didn’t they object, saying, “But Master, we have fished all night and caught nothing!” (Luke5:4;John 21:6) 听起来是不是很熟悉?当耶稣告诉你去做一件事的时候,也许你也会反对它太难或者没有任何意义。当耶稣对那些打渔的人说,“把船划到水深的地方,下网捕鱼吧。”他们是不是也反对说:“夫子,我们整夜劳力,并没有打着什么,但依从你的话,我就下网。”(路5:4;约21:6)

  Which of these things Jesus tells us to do don’t make sense to you, or just seems too hard?  “Do not resist an evil person. If someone strikes you on the right cheek, turn to him the other also.” -- Matthew 5:39

“ 只是我告诉你们,不要与恶人作对。有人打你的右脸,连左脸也转过来由他打;”(太5:39) • “Submit to one another out of reverence for Christ.” – Ephesians 5:21 你们要存敬畏基督的心,彼此顺服。——以弗所书5:21 • “Love your enemies, do good to those who hate you” – Luke 6:27  “只是我告诉你们这听道的人:你们的仇敌,要爱他;恨你们的,要待他好。
——路加福音6:27 • “Repent and be baptized, every one of you, in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of your sins. And you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit” – Acts 2:38彼得说:“你们各人要悔改,奉耶稣基督的名受洗,叫你们的罪得赦,就必领受所赐的圣灵。”——使徒行传2:38 • “Do not be anxious about anything, but in everything, by prayer and petition, with thanksgiving, present your requests to God.” – Philippians 4:6 应当一无挂虑,只要凡事借着祷告、祈求和感谢,将你们所要的告诉神。 ——腓立比书4:6 Like Mary, trust in Jesus and do whatever He tells you, because He knows better than us, and because His results are always best. 像马利亚一样信靠耶稣,照他所吩咐你的去行,因为他知道的比我们多,他的结果 也都是好的。

  1. What purpose did Jesus have in performing this miracle? 耶稣行这个神迹的目的是什么?

Jesus provided a very large amount of wine through this miracle (about 450-680 liters). Jesus’ gift of wine was excellent in quality and abundant in quantity. Of course, it could be misused or abused in drunkenness, but it could also be used to provide joy and gladness for a celebration. Psalm 104:14-15 says, “He makes grass grow for the cattle, and plants for man to cultivate– bringing forth food from the earth: wine that gladdens the heart of man, oil to make his face shine, and bread that sustains his heart.” Wine is one of God’s gifts, to be received with thanks and used in moderation. 耶稣藉这个神迹为婚礼供应了大量的酒(约450-680升)。耶稣所赐的酒,品质优良,数量充足。当然,它可能会被误用或滥用于醉酒,但它也可以用来供应欢乐和喜悦的庆祝。诗篇104:14-15说,“14 他使草生长给六畜吃,使菜蔬发长供给人用,使人从地里能得食物。15 又得酒能悦人心,得油能润人面,得粮能养人心。”酒是上帝的礼物之一,要带着感谢接受,并适度使用。

But remember that God warns about drinking too much. Ephesians 5:18 says, “Do not get drunk on wine, which leads to debauchery. Instead, be filled with the Spirit.” 但是要记住,神警告我们不要喝太多。以弗所书5:18说:“不要醉酒,酒能使人放荡。乃要被圣灵充满。”

  1. What can we learn about Jesus from this miracle? 这个神迹让我们对耶稣有怎样的认识?

Read John 2:12-25 (Jesus clears the temple) 读约翰福音2:12-25 (耶稣洁净圣殿) Verse 12 mentions that Jesus went to Capernaum with his mother and brothers. Did Jesus have brothers? Since Jesus was not the son of Joseph and Mary (but of Mary and the Holy Spirit) those brothers were actually younger “half-brothers” (the children of Mary and Joseph). Their names are mentioned in Mark 6:3 – “Isn’t this Mary’s son and the brother of James, Joseph, Judas and Simon? Aren’t his sisters here with us?” 第12节提到耶稣和他的母亲及兄弟们去了迦百农。耶稣有兄弟吗?因为耶稣不是约瑟和马利亚(马利亚和圣灵的儿子)的儿子,那些兄弟实际上是同母异父的弟弟(马利亚和约瑟的儿子)。马可福音6:3节提到他们的名字,“这不是那木匠吗?不是马利亚的儿子雅各、约瑟、犹大、西门的长兄吗?他妹妹们不也是在我们这里吗?” From John 7:5 (“For even his own brothers did not believe in him.”) it is clear that Jesus’ half-brothers did not believe in him at first. Only after the resurrection do we read that Jesus’ brothers were included among the believers (see Acts 1:14). Later, one of the brothers, James, became a leader in the early church, and wrote the epistle of James in the New Testament. 从约翰福音7:5中(因为连他自己的弟兄也不信他),可以很明显地看出,耶稣同母异父的兄弟们起初并不相信他。只有在复活之后,我们才读到耶稣的弟兄被包括在信徒之中(见使徒行传1:14)。后来,兄弟中的一个,雅各,成为早期教会的领袖,并在新约中写了雅各书信。 In the time of the New Testament, Jewish believers from all over the world would gather at Jerusalem to observe the Passover, one of the three great Jewish religious festivals. The law required that each worship present a sacrificial animal or bird at the temple. The law also required that each worshiper pay the temple tax, using only the local coins that were acceptable at the temple. Because it would be difficult to travel a long distance with a sacrificial animal, and because people from other countries would need to obtain the local money needed for the temple offering, merchants sold sacrificial animals and changed coins into the local money as a convenience for the worshipers. But there was a problem with these customs. 在新约时期,来自世界各地的犹太信徒会聚集在耶路撒冷庆祝逾越节,这是犹太人三大宗教节日之一。律法规定,每个礼拜者都要在庙里献上一只献祭的动物或鸟。律法又规定,每个礼拜的人都要用殿里所收纳的本地钱币纳税。因为带着祭祀动物长途跋涉很困难,而且来自其它国家的人需要获得寺庙祭祀所需的当地货币,商人们就会出售祭祀动物,也为人把硬币换成当地货币,为祭拜者提供方便。但是这些习俗有一个问题。

  1. Why was it necessary for Jesus to drive out those who were transacting business in the temple courts? 耶稣为什么要把在圣殿里做买卖的人赶出去?

  2. The leaders of the temple were angry with Jesus for interrupting their business. They asked Jesus for a sign to prove His authority to cleanse the temple. What sign did Jesus give them? 圣殿的领袖们对耶稣打扰他们做生意感到愤怒。他们向耶稣求一个神迹来证明他有权柄洁净圣殿。耶稣给了他们什么征兆sign?

Read John 3:1-21 (Jesus teaches Nicodemus) 读约翰福音3:1-21(耶稣教导尼哥底母)

Nicodemus was a teacher (v. 10), a Pharisee, and a member of the Sanhedrin, the Jewish ruling council. The Sanhedrin had 70 members who were responsible for religious decisions. This was the group that eventually put Jesus on trial (Luke 22:66). 

Nicodemus is only mentioned in the Gospel of John. In John 7:50-51 we read that Nicodemus rebuked the Pharisees for condemning Jesus without hearing Him. And after Jesus’ death, Nicodemus donated a gift of spices and helped Joseph of Arimathea bury Jesus (19:39–40). 尼哥底母只在约翰福音中提到。在约翰福音7:50-51中,我们读到尼哥底母斥责法利赛人没有听耶稣说话就定他的罪。耶稣死后,尼哥底母献上香料,帮助亚利马太人约瑟埋葬耶稣(19:39 40)。 Although Nicodemus was a teacher of God’s Word in Israel, he did not understand the way of salvation and spiritual life. The main thing that the Scriptures had taught was confusing to this teacher of Israel. Unfortunately, this often seems to be the case today. There are many religious teachers in churches who do not seem to grasp the gospel or how God saves and gives spiritual life. They teach a social gospel, or they teach a way of salvation by works. How can you be a Christian teacher if you do not understand that God saves and gives life through His Spirit? 尼哥底母虽然在以色列是神话语的老师,却不明白救恩的道和属灵的生命。圣经所教导的主要内容使这位以色列人的老师感到困惑。不幸的是,今天似乎也常常有这种事情。教会中有许多宗教教师似乎并不明白福音,也不明白神如何拯救和赐下属灵的生命。他们传授社会福音,或者教导靠好行为得救的道。如果你不明白神藉着他的灵拯救和赐生命,你怎么能成为一个基督徒教师呢?

  1. Why did Nicodemus visit Jesus at night? 尼哥底母为什么要在夜里去见耶稣?

  2. The term “born again” is used in many different ways among Christians. What did Jesus mean when he used the term “born again”? (In preparing your answer, read Ephesians 2:1; Colossians 2:13; and John 6:63.) “重生”这个词在基督徒中有很多不同的用法。耶稣使用“重生”一词时,他的意思是什么?(在准备你的答案时,请参阅以弗所书2:1;《歌罗西书》2:13;约翰6:63。)

  3. Today many people will ask the question “Are you born again?” How would you answer that question using verses 16-18? 今天有许多人会问这个问题:你重生了吗?你如何用16-18节来回答这个问题?

  4. How would you explain the comparison between Moses lifting up the snake in the desert and Jesus’ being lifted up on the cross? 你怎样解释摩西在旷野举蛇与耶稣在十字架上被举起之间的共同点?

  5. What important truths of the gospel does Jesus’ teach Nicodemus in verses 16-17? 耶稣在16-17节教导了尼哥底母有关福音的什么重要真理?

Read John 3:22-36 (John the Baptist’s testimony about Jesus) 读约翰福音3:22-36(施洗约翰为耶稣作见证) After Jesus’ interview with Nicodemus, the Lord took his disciples away from Jerusalem and down to the southern portion of the Jordan River, not far from ancient Jericho. There the disciples of Jesus began a baptism ministry (see John 4:2) which became very popular. In fact, the disciples of John the Baptist seem to have become envious that Jesus was gaining more followers than John had, and they complained about it to John. 在耶稣与尼哥底母谈话之后,主带着他的门徒离开耶路撒冷,来到约旦河的南部,离耶利哥城不远。在那里,耶稣的门徒开始了洗礼事工(见约翰福音4:2),这事变得很受欢迎。事实上,施洗约翰的门徒似乎嫉妒耶稣获得了比约翰更多的追随者,他们开始向约翰抱怨。 John’s beautiful reply is recorded in verses 27-36. What were some of the faith-inspired truths that John confessed about Jesus? 约翰美丽的回答记录在27-36节。约翰承认的有关耶稣的一些真理,会对人的信心有很大启迪,它们是什么? • v. 27-28 = • v. 29 = • v. 30 = • v. 31 = • v. 34 = • v. 35 = • v. 36 =

  1. Verse 36 says, “Whoever believes in the Son has eternal life.” It doesn’t say that we will have eternal life when we get to heaven. How do we have eternal life even while we still live in this world? 36节说:“信子的人就有永生。”它的意思并不是说,当我们到达天堂时才会有永生。我们是怎样在活在世上的时候就已经有了永生呢?

  2. What does his answer say to us when we find ourselves becoming jealous of the successes others enjoy in their service to the Lord? 当我们发现自己嫉妒别人服侍主所获得的成就时,神的回答在对我们说什么?

In the next lesson we will see how Jesus went to reach the people of Samaria through a woman he met at a well. Please prepare the lesson on John 4 and 5. May the Lord guide your study of his holy word.