A. The Text Of The Nicene Creed 尼西亚信经的文本
I believe in one God, the Father Almighty, maker of heaven and earth and of all things visible and invisible.
And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only begotten Son of God, begotten of His Father before all worlds, God of God, Light of Light, very God of very God, begotten, not made, being of one substance with the Father, by whom all things were made; who for us men and for our salvation came down from heaven and was incarnate by the Holy Spirit of the virgin Mary and was made man; and was crucified also for us under Pontius Pilate. He suffered and was buried. And the third day He rose again according to the Scriptures and ascended into heaven and sits at the right hand of the Father. And He will come again with glory to judge both the living and the dead, whose kingdom will have no end.
And I believe in the Holy Spirit, the Lord and Giver of life, who proceeds from the Father and the Son, who with the Father and the Son together is worshiped and glorified, who spoke by the prophets. And I believe in one holy Christian and apostolic Church. I acknowledge one Baptism for the remission of sins, and I look for the resurrection of the dead and the life of the world to come. Amen.
B. Characteristics Of The Nicene Creed尼西亚信经的特点
The creed is similar in outline and content to the Apostles’ Creed.
The creed is Trinitarian, confessing the three Persons of God and their work.
The creed emphasizes the eternal being of Christ and His activity before His incarnation.
The creed places the work of salvation in its cosmic context.
The creed strongly emphasizes the divinity of Jesus, the Son.
The creed was fashioned to address a doctrinal controversy about Jesus Christ
The creed is the most widely accepted creed in the Christian Church on earth
The creed is considered to be “the Creed of the communicant.”
The creed is “conciliar.” It is the product of an official Church Council that defines orthodox belief and possesses more than local authority.
C. The Development Of The Nicene Creed尼西亚信条的发展
The creed was produced by the Eastern Church (the part of the Church that developed in eastern part of the Roman Empire, primarily in eastern Europe. western Asia and eastern Africa)
The Arian Conflict (320-360 A.D.) prompted the writing of the creed. Arius, a priest of Alexandria, Egypt, developed a widely accepted heresy that the Son is not true God and is also not eternal. Arius believed that Christ was an exalted, created being through whom God the Father created the world.
阿里乌斯派之争（公元320-360年）促使了信条的撰写。 埃及亚历山大的牧师阿里乌斯提出了一个被广泛接受的异端，即圣子不是真神，也不是永恒的。 阿里乌斯认为，基督是一个高高在上的受造物，父神通过他创造了世界。
Emperor Constantine called the first ecumenical Council in order to end division in the Christian church, to promote peace and unity in his empire, and to protect the reputation of the Christian religion by finding a formula to express clearly what the church believed about the Lord Jesus Christ.
318 bishops of the church met to form this Council in Nicea (a city near Constantinople, which is modern day Istanbul) during May and June of 325 A.D. All the delegates were from Eastern churches, except for Hosius of Cordova, Spain who was sent by the bishop of Rome and served as chairman of the Council.
The Council rejected a creed proposed by the followers of Arius which denied Christ’s eternally begotten Sonship and His oneness in essence with the Father.
The Council accepted a creed proposed by Eusebius of Caesarea as the basis for a new confession.
Model Oriental Creed 东方教会信经范本
I believe in one God, the Father Almighty, Maker of all things visible and invisible.
And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only-begotten Son of God, begotten of His Father before all worlds, by whom all things were made, who for our salvation was made man. He suffered, and the third day He rose again, and ascended into heaven, and He shall come again to judge both the living and the dead.
And in the Holy Spirit.
The Council debate centered on which of two Greek words “homoousious” (which means “of the same essence” and was preferred by the orthodox church leaders) and “homoiousios” (which means “of a similar essence” and was preferred by some supporters of Arius) most accurately expressed the nature of Christ.
大公会议的辩论集中在两个希腊词"homoousious"（意思是 “相同的本质”，正统的教会领袖倾向于这个词）和 “homoiousios”（意思是 “相似的本质”，被阿里乌斯的一些支持者倾向于这个词）中，哪个最准确地表达基督的本质。
The Council amended Eusebius’ creed to include the word “homoousios”, to affirm the full divinity of the Son, and to include a curse against those who held the view of the Arians.
大公会议更正了尤西比乌斯的信条，加入了 “homoousios “一词，肯定了圣子的完全神性，并加入了对持有亚流派观点的人的诅咒。
They gave approval to the original Nicene Creed
The Original Nicene Creed of 325 A.D. 公元325年的《尼西亚信条》原文。
We believe in one God, the Father Almighty, Maker of all things visible and invisible.
And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, begotten of the Father (the only begotten; that is, of the essence of the Father, God of God, Light of Light, very God of very God, begotten, not made, being of one substance (homoousion) with the Father; by whom all things were made both in heaven and on earth; who for us men, and for our salvation, came down and was incarnate and was made man; He suffered, and the third day He rose again, ascended into heaven; from there He will come to judge the living and the dead.
And in the Holy Spirit.
But those who say: ‘There was a time when He was not;” and ‘He was not before He was made:’ and ‘He was made out of nothing.’ Or ‘He is of another substance’ or ‘essence,’ or ‘The Son of God is created,’ or ‘changeable’ or ‘alterable’ – they are condemned by the holy catholic and apostolic Church.
若有人说：‘祂不存在于某个时段中’；‘在祂被造之前，祂不存在’；‘祂是从无有中被造’或‘祂是另一种物质’或‘本质’，或‘上帝的儿子是被造的’，或‘是可改变的’或‘可变化的’ - 他们将被圣而公之、使徒教会咒诅。
Arius and his followers were given the choice to accept the Nicene Creed as their confession by signing it or to be sent into exile. Arius and his followers refused to accept the creed and chose exile.
Quarreling continued between the orthodox and Arian groups for many years after the Council of Nicea. Athanasius of Alexandria (293-373 A.D.) emerged as the brave champion for orthodox, biblical teaching. From 350-354 A. D., he wrote “Concerning the Decrees of the Council of Nicea” to refute the Arians, who had won the sympathies of emperors after Constantine with their weak and erring form of Christianity.
尼西亚会议之后，正统派和阿里乌派之间的争论持续了许多年。 亚历山大的亚他那修（293-373 A.D.）成为正统的、符合圣经的教义的勇敢支持者。 公元350-354年，他写了《关于尼西亚会议的法令》来驳斥亚流派，当时亚流派以其式微的和错误的基督教信仰赢得了君士坦丁之后皇帝们的同情。
In 381 A. D., Emperor Theodosius convened the second ecumenical Council in Constantinople to deal with the Pneumatomachians (who denied the divinity of the Holy Spirit) and other errors. The 150 Eastern church bishops who met at the Council decided to address this and other doctrinal issues by using material that Cyril introduced from the Creed of Jerusalem of 348 A.D. to amend and enlarge the original Nicene Creed. They made several minor changes in the articles that dealt with the Father and the Son, added several phrases to the third article about the Holy Spirit, and deleted the curse against the Arians to produce the Niceano-Constantinopolitan Creed.
公元381年，狄奥多西皇帝在君士坦丁堡召开了第二次大公会议，以处理Pneumatomachians（否认圣灵的神性）和其他错误。 参加大公会议的150位东方教会主教决定利用西里尔（Cyril）从公元348年的《耶路撒冷信经》中引入的材料来解决这个问题和其他教义问题，以修正和扩大原来的《尼西亚信经》。 他们对涉及圣父和圣子的条款做了一些细微的修改，在关于圣灵的第三条中增加了几个短语，并删除了对亚流派的诅咒，从而产生了《尼西亚-康斯坦丁堡信条（Niceano-Constantinopolitan Creed）》。
The Niceano-Constantinopolitan Creed尼西亚-康斯坦丁堡信条（Niceano-Constantinopolitan Creed）
We believe in one God, the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth, and of all things visible and invisible.
And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only begotten Son of God, begotten of the Father before all worlds, Light of light, very God of very God, begotten, not made, being of one substance with the Father; by whom all things were made; who for us men, and for our salvation, came down from heaven, and was incarnate by the Holy Spirit of the Virgin Mary, and was made man; He was crucified for us under Pontius Pilate, and suffered and was buried, and the third day He rose again, according to the Scriptures, and ascended into heaven, and sits on the right hand of the Father; from there He shall come again, with glory, to judge the living and the dead; whose kingdom shall have no end.
And in the Holy Spirit, the Lord and Giver of life, who proceeds from the Father, who with the Father and the Son together is worshiped and glorified, who spoke by the prophets. In one holy catholic and apostolic Church; we acknowledge one baptism for the remission of sins; we look for the resurrection of the dead, and the life of the world to come. Amen.
The Council of Chalcedon held in 451 A.D. officially recognized the Niceano-Constantinopolitan Creed.
公元451年举行的迦克墩会议（Council of Chalcedon）正式承认了《尼斯诺-康斯坦丁信条》。
The Western Church added the word “filioque” (Latin for “and the Son” to the creed to express the co-equality of the Son with the Father in the procession of the Holy Spirit as Augustine had taught. The Western Church also reinserted the words “God of God” and change the 1st person plural “we” to a first person singular “I.” The Council of Toledo in 589 A.D. expressed these changes. The altered creed gained gradual acceptance among the Western churches.
西方教会在信条中加入了 “filioque”（拉丁文，意为 “和圣子”）一词，以表达圣子与圣父在差遣圣灵中的共同地位，正如奥古斯丁所教导的。 西方教会还重新插入了 “是从神所出之神”，并将第一人称复数 “我们 “改为第一人称单数 “我”。 公元589年的托莱多会议明确的陈述了这些变化。 改变后的信条在西方教会中逐渐被接受。
The Eastern Church refused to accept the “filioque” addition. This issue was a factor in the Great Schism of 1054 A.D. when the Eastern and Western Churches broke fellowship and went their separate ways.
东方教会拒绝接受 “filioque “的补充。 这个问题是公元1054年大分裂的一个因素，当时东西方教会断绝关系，分道扬镳。
The Eastern Church recognized the Nicene Creed as its main confession of faith.
The Western Church adopted the Nicene Creed as the “Creed of the Communicant.”
The Lutheran Church followed Martin Luther’s lead and changed the word “catholic” (which means “universal”) to “Christian” in its version of the Nicene Creed in order to avoid confusing the Roman Catholic denomination with the Holy Christian Church (which is made up of all those who believe in Christ as their Savior whatever their affiliation with an earthly church).
路德宗追随马丁-路德的带领，将其版本的《尼西亚信经》中的 “大公教”（意为 “普世”）一词改为 “基督教”，以避免将罗马天主教教派与神圣的基督教会（由所有相信基督为救主的人组成，无论他们属于哪个地上教会）混淆。
The Lutheran Church adopted the Nicene Creed as one of its primary confessions.
D. The Value And Use Of The Nicene Creed尼西亚信经的价值和用途
The creed serves as a test of correct Christian belief
The creed is a helpful aid for public confession of faith in worship
The creed identifies the basis principles of Christian belief
The creed aids in personal examination and spiritual renewal, especially for Communion
The creed fosters unity and harmony in faith among Christians
Part VI Review Questions 复习题
How did the Nicene Creed get its name?
What is one of the outstanding features of the Nicene Creed?
What incorrect things was Arius teaching about Jesus Christ?
Who created the Council of Nicea and when did this council meet?
What is the significance of the two Greek words “homoousious” = “of the same essence” and “homoiousious” = “of a similar essence” in the conflict about the Christ that the Council addressed?
在大公会议处理的关于基督的冲突中，两个希腊词 “homoousious”=“相同的本质 “和 “homoiousious”=“相似的本质 “的意义是什么？
What did the final part of the original Nicene Creed contain that was later dropped from the creed?
How were Arius and his followers dealt with at the Council of Nicea?
Which Council, held in 381 A.D., revised the Nicene Creed into its more complete form?
Why does one version of the Creed use the original word “we” and another version use the word “I”?
为什么信经的一个版本使用原来的 “我们 “一词，而另一个版本使用 “我 “一词？
Why did the Lutherans change the original word “catholic” to the word “Christian” in the version of the creed they use?
为什么路德宗在他们使用的信经版本中把原来的 “大公教 “改为 “基督教”？