Lesson 2

PROLEGOMENA绪论 Introduction to the Study of Christian Doctrine基督教教义学习简介

Chapter 1 – The Study of Christian Doctrine 第一章——基督教教义学习

Lesson 2 ALS bilingual pdf file: Chapter 1 pages 6-29 第二课 ALS双语PDF文件:第一章 第6-29页 [NPH: pages 6-22] [NPH:第6-22页]

Introduction 简介 In lesson 1 we learned that the correct approach to Christian doctrine is this: “The Word of God – and no one else, not even an angel – should establish articles of faith.” (Smalcald Articles II II:15) 在第一课,我们学到,对待基督教教义的正确态度是:“神的话——除此以外没有别的,天使也不行——才是信心的依据。”(施马加登信条II II:15) In this lesson we will consider those Christian churches and non-Christian religions (cults) which do not observe this approach. We will also consider the sad consequences that come when these churches and religions search for their truth in other places and through other methods. 本课我们将要学习的基督教教会以及非基督教宗教(异教)并不持守这样的态度。这些教会和宗教在其他的地方、以其他的方式来寻求真理,以致产生了可悲的后果,我们对此也会有所了解。

John 8:31 To the Jews who had believed him, Jesus said, “If you hold to my teaching, you are really my disciples. 32 Then you will know the truth, and the truth will set you free.” 约8:31 耶稣对信他的犹太人说,你们若常常遵守我的道,就真是我的门徒。 Learn and remember the warnings this lesson gives: Do not depend on your reason or human tradition to establish Christian truth. Do not lose the centrality of Jesus and the Bible. 学习并且谨记本课所提出的教训:建立基督教真理不能依靠自己的理性或者人的传统。要以耶稣和圣经为中心,不能离开。

Other approaches to the study of Christian doctrine 学习基督教教义的其他途径

  1. Other Christian Churches 其他基督教教会 a. Roman Catholicism: Scripture and Tradition 罗马天主教会:圣经和传统

Mark 7:5-8 So the Pharisees and teachers of the law asked Jesus, “Why don’t your disciples live according to the tradition of the elders instead of eating their food with defiled hands?” He replied, “Isaiah was right when he prophesied about you hypocrites; as it is written: “‘These people honor me with their lips, but their hearts are far from me. They worship me in vain; their teachings are merely human rules.’ You have let go of the commands of God and are holding on to human traditions.” 可7:5-8 法利赛人和文士问他说,你的门徒为什么不照古人的遗传,用俗手吃饭呢?耶稣说,以赛亚指着你们假冒为善之人所说的预言,是不错的,如经上说,这百姓用嘴唇尊敬我,心却远离我。他们将人的吩咐,当作道理教导人,所以拜我也是枉然。你们是离弃神的诫命,拘守人的遗传。

b. The Orthodox church: Scripture and Tradition 东正教教会:圣经和传统

Isaiah 8:20 Consult God’s instruction and the testimony of warning. If anyone does not speak according to this word, they have no light of dawn. 赛8:20 人当以训诲和法度为标准。他们所说的,若不与此相符,必不得见晨光。

Matthew 23:8-12 “But you are not to be called ‘Rabbi,’ for you have one Teacher, and you are all brothers. And do not call anyone on earth ‘father,’ for you have one Father, and he is in heaven. Nor are you to be called instructors, for you have one Instructor, the Messiah. The greatest among you will be your servant. For those who exalt themselves will be humbled, and those who humble themselves will be exalted. 太23:8-12 但你们不要受拉比的称呼。因为只有一位是你们的夫子。你们都是弟兄。也不要称呼地上的人为父。因为只有一位是你们的父,就是在天上的父。也不要受师尊的称呼。因为只有一位是你们的师尊,就是基督。你们中间谁为大,谁就要作你们的用人。凡自高的必降为卑,自卑的必升为高。

2 Peter 1:19-21 We also have the prophetic message as something completely reliable, and you will do well to pay attention to it, as to a light shining in a dark place, until the day dawns and the morning star rises in your hearts. Above all, you must understand that no prophecy of Scripture came about by the prophet’s own interpretation of things. For prophecy never had its origin in the human will, but prophets, though human, spoke from God as they were carried along by the Holy Spirit. 彼后1:19-21 我们并有先知更确的预言,如同灯照在暗处。你们在这预言上留意,直等到天发亮晨星在你们心里出现的时候,才是好的。第一要紧的,该知道经上所有的预言,没有可随私意解说的。因为预言从来没有出于人意的,乃是人被圣灵感动说出神的话来。

c. The Reformed churches: Scripture and Reason 改革宗教会:圣经和理性

Human reason is a great gift from God. Reason is our ability to discover the way God’s world works. The scientist and Christian, Johannes Kepler (1571-1630), said that by studying the world we are able to “think God’s thoughts after Him.”
人的理性是神的一项美好恩赐。理性使得我们能够发现神所创造世界的运行规律。作为科学家和基督徒,约翰尼斯·开普勒(1571-1630)说,通过学习这个世界,我们可以“像神一样思考”。 But we must not use our reason to determine whether or not what the Bible says is true. The Bible reveals some things that do not make logical sense. For example, how can the bread and wine of the Lord’s Supper be Jesus’ body and blood? The doesn’t make logical sense.
但是,我们不可用自己的理性来决定圣经所说的是否是真理。圣经所启示的有些真理并不能为逻辑所解释。例如,主餐的饼和杯怎么会是耶稣的身体和血呢?这并不合逻辑。 The following passage shows us that our reason must not rule over the Bible. We will use our reason to understand what the Bible says. But we must not use our reason to determine if what the Bible says is true or not. 下面的经文告诉我们,我们的理性并不能凌驾于圣经之上。我们可以使用理性来学习圣经。但是我们并不能决定圣经所说是否是真理。

2 Corinthians 10:4-5 The weapons we fight with are not the weapons of the world. On the contrary, they have divine power to demolish strongholds. We demolish arguments and every pretension that sets itself up against the knowledge of God, and we take captive every thought to make it obedient to Christ. 林后10:4-5 我们争战的兵器,本不是属血气的,乃是在神面前有能力可以攻破坚固的营垒,将各样的计谋,各样拦阻人认识神的那些自高之事,一概攻破了,又将人所有的心意夺回,使他都顺服基督。

  1. Cults: special revelations and private interpretations 异教:特殊启示和个人解释

Jeremiah 23:25-28 “I have heard what the prophets say who prophesy lies in my name. They say, ‘I had a dream! I had a dream!’ How long will this continue in the hearts of these lying prophets, who prophesy the delusions of their own minds? They think the dreams they tell one another will make my people forget my name, just as their ancestors forgot my name through Baal worship. Let the prophet who has a dream recount the dream, but let the one who has my word speak it faithfully. For what has straw to do with grain?” declares the LORD. 耶23:25-28 我已听见那些先知所说的,就是托我名说的假预言,他们说,我作了梦。我作了梦。 说假预言的先知,就是预言本心诡诈的先知,他们这样存心要到几时呢?他们各人将所作的梦对邻舍述说,想要使我的百姓忘记我的名,正如他们列祖因巴力忘记我的名一样。得梦的先知可以述说那梦。得我话的人可以诚实讲说我的话。糠秕怎能与麦子比较呢?这是耶和华说的。

2 Timothy 2:16-18 Avoid godless chatter, because those who indulge in it will become more and more ungodly. Their teaching will spread like gangrene. Among them are Hymenaeus and Philetus, who have departed from the truth. They say that the resurrection has already taken place, and they destroy the faith of some. 提后2:16-18 但要远避世俗的虚谈。因为这等人必进到更不敬虔的地步。他们的话如同毒疮,越烂越大。其中有许米乃和腓理徒。他们偏离了真道,说复活的事已过,就败坏好些人的信心。

Colossians 2:8 See to it that no one takes you captive through hollow and deceptive philosophy, which depends on human tradition and the elemental spiritual forces of this world rather than on Christ. 【西2:8】 你们要谨慎,恐怕有人用他的理学,和虚空的妄言,不照着基督,乃照人间的遗传,和世上的小学,就把你们掳去。

Galatians 1:8-9 But even if we or an angel from heaven should preach a gospel other than the one we preached to you, let them be under God’s curse! As we have already said, so now I say again: If anybody is preaching to you a gospel other than what you accepted, let them be under God’s curse! 加1:8-9 但无论是我们,是天上来的使者,若传福音给你们,与我们所传给你们的不同,他就应当被咒诅。我们已经说了,现在又说,若有人传福音给你们,与你们所领受的不同,他就应当被咒诅。

  1. Modernism 现代主义

Job 38:4 “Where were you when I laid the earth’s foundation? Tell me, if you understand. 【伯38:4】 我立大地根基的时候,你在哪里呢?你若有聪明,只管说吧。

Hebrews 1:1-2 In the past God spoke to our ancestors through the prophets at many times and in various ways, but in these last days he has spoken to us by his Son, whom he appointed heir of all things, and through whom also he made the universe. 来1:1-2 神既在古时借着众先知,多次多方的晓谕列祖,就在这末世,借着他儿子晓谕我们,又早已立他为承受万有的,也曾借着他创造诸世界。

John 17:17 Sanctify them by the truth; your word is truth. 【约17:17】 求你用真理使他们成圣。你的道就是真理。

John 18:37-38a “You are a king, then!” said Pilate. Jesus answered, “You say that I am a king. In fact, the reason I was born and came into the world is to testify to the truth. Everyone on the side of truth listens to me.” “What is truth?” retorted Pilate. 约18:37-38上彼拉多就对他说,这样,你是王吗?耶稣回答说,你说我是王。我为此而生,也为此来到世间,特为给真理作见证。凡属真理的人,就听我的话。彼拉多说,真理是什么呢? 4. Postmodernism 后现代主义

1 Corinthians 15:32 If I fought wild beasts in Ephesus with no more than human hopes, what have I gained? If the dead are not raised, “Let us eat and drink, for tomorrow we die.” 【林前15:32】 我若当日像寻常人,在以弗所同野兽战斗,那于我有什么益处呢?若死人不复活,我们就吃吃喝喝吧。因为明天要死了。

  1. Mixtures of modernism and postmodernism 现代主义和后现代主义混杂

John 10:35b Scripture cannot be set aside—
约10:35上 经上的话是不能废的。

Psalm 14:1 The fool says in his heart, “There is no God.” They are corrupt, their deeds are vile; there is no one who does good. 【诗14:1】愚顽人心里说,没有神。他们都是邪恶,行了可憎恶的事。没有一个人行善。

Matthew 6:19-21 “Do not store up for yourselves treasures on earth, where moths and vermin destroy, and where thieves break in and steal. But store up for yourselves treasures in heaven, where moths and vermin do not destroy, and where thieves do not break in and steal. For where your treasure is, there your heart will be also. 太6:19-21 不要为自己积攒财宝在地上,地上有虫子咬,能锈坏,也有贼挖窟窿来偷。只要积攒财宝在天上,天上没有虫子咬,不能锈坏,也没有贼挖窟窿来偷。因为你的财宝在哪里,你的心也在哪里。

1 Corinthians 11:3 But I want you to realize that the head of every man is Christ, and the head of the woman is man, and the head of Christ is God. 【林前11:3】 我愿意你们知道,基督是各人的头。男人是女人的头,神是基督的头。

Galatians 3:28 There is neither Jew nor Gentile, neither slave nor free, nor is there male and female, for you are all one in Christ Jesus. 【加3:28】 并不分犹太人,希利尼人,自主的,为奴的,或男或女。因为你们在基督耶稣里都成为一了。

1 Corinthians 15:12, 20 But if it is preached that Christ has been raised from the dead, how can some of you say that there is no resurrection of the dead? ……But Christ has indeed been raised from the dead, the firstfruits of those who have fallen asleep. 【林前15:12,20】 既传基督是从死里复活了,怎么在你们中间,有人说没有死人复活的事呢?…… 但基督已经从死里复活,成为睡了之人初熟的果子。

Conclusion 结语 Any approach to Christian doctrine (saving truth) that does not find truth in the Bible alone is a false approach. Only one approach is correct: Scripture alone. 任何建立基督教教义(救恩真理)的方法,只要不是单单根植于圣经,就是错误的方法。只有一种方法是正确的:惟独圣经。




Homework Review your notes from this lesson. Give correct answers to the following questions. You may also find correct answers to these questions in the book “God So Loved the World” as indicated on page 1 of this lesson. Be ready to discuss these questions and your answers at the beginning of the next session.
Your first exam will follow lesson 12 of this course.

Other approaches to the study of Christian doctrine. 其他学习基督教教义的方法。

  1. How do the following [Christian Denominations] approach the study of Christian doctrine? 以下派别怎样学习基督教教义?

a. Roman Catholicism (Compare the view of the Council of Trent with that of Vatican II) 罗马天主教(比较天特会议与梵谛冈第二次大公会议的观点)

b. The Orthodox Church (Cf. pp. 11-13) 东正教(Cf. pp. 11-13)

c. The Reformed Churches 改革宗教会

a. Cults 异教

b. Modernism 现代主义

c. Post-Modernism 后现代主义

  1. Answer the following questions: 回答一下问题: a. What brought about the break between the Eastern and the Western churches? 是什么导致东正教与罗马教会产生分裂?

b. Give a brief overview of the development of the Orthodox Church. 简要概述东正教的发展史

c. Identify how the Reformed approach to the study of the Bible affects the following teachings of the Bible: 明确改革宗学习圣经的方法怎样影响以下圣经的教义:

  1. The means of grace 恩典的途径

  2. The real presence of Christ’s body and blood in the Lord’s Supper 圣餐中基督的身体和血的真实同在

  3. Conversion 归信

d. List the six characteristics of a cult? 列举异教的六个特征?

e. Relate the influences from the 18th through the 20th centuries which led to the development of Modernism and Post-Modernism. Identify the following: 叙述从18世纪到20世纪的导致现代主义和后现代主义发展的影响。 明确下面内容:

  1. The Enlightenment 启蒙运动

  2. David Hume 大卫休谟

  3. Jean Astruc雅思突

  4. Johann Semler塞姆勒

5 Charles Darwin 查尔斯达尔文

6 Karl Marx 卡尔马克思

7 Friedrich Nietzsche 弗里德里希・尼采

8 Sigmund Freud 弗洛伊德

9 Romanticism 浪漫主义

10 Immanuel Kant 伊曼努尔·康德

11 Friedrich Schleiermacher 弗里德里希・施莱马赫

  1. Religious Liberalism 宗教自由主义

  2. Neo-orthodoxy 新正统运动

  3. Rudolph Bultmann 鲁道夫 布尔特曼

  4. Existentialism 存在主义

  5. Demythologizing 解神话化

  6. The Jesus of History vs. the Historical Jesus 历史上的耶稣与历史性的耶稣

  7. Albert Schweitzer and “The Quest for the Historical Jesus” 艾伯特·史怀哲及“探索历史性的耶稣”

  8. Modernism’s view of the Bible 现代主义的圣经观

  9. Modernism’s view of the world 现代主义的世界观

  10. Postmodernism’s view of truth and the Bible 后现代主义的真理与圣经观

  11. Postmodernism’s view of science, society, and education 后现代主义的科学,社会及教育观

  12. Relate how the following approach the study of Christian doctrine: 阐述以下派别怎样对待基督教教义的学习:

a. Neo-orthodoxy 新正统运动

b. Radical theology 激进神学

c. Secular theology 世俗神学

d. Liberation theology 自由神学

e. Feminist theology 女性神学

f. Black theology 黑色神学

g. Existential theology 存在主义神学

  1. In conclusion, reiterate what our approach is to the study of Christian doctrine. 总结,重申我们学习圣经教义的方法。