In the previous lessons… 在前面的课程中
I. The Birth and Childhood of John and of Jesus
II. The Baptism and Temptation of Jesus
III. Jesus ministers in Judea (Spring 27-Spring 28 – about 1 year)
耶稣在犹大传道 （公元27 年春 – 28 年春 - 约一年）
IV. Jesus ministers in Galilee (Spring 28-Spring 29 – about 1 year)
耶稣在加利利传道 （公元28年春 – 29年春 -约一年）
V. Jesus’ Withdrawals (Spring 29 to Fall 29 – about 6 months)
耶稣的退隐 （公元29年春 到29年秋 - 大约六个月）
VI. Later Judean Ministry and back to Galilee (Fall of 29)
VII. The death journey – from Galilee – ultimately to Jerusalem (Fall of 29 – Spring of 30)
死亡之旅 – 从加利利 – 最后到耶路撒冷（公元后二十九年秋 – 三十年春）
Events of Holy Week (7 days in Spring of 30 AD) 圣周的事件（公元三十年春的七天）
The Gospel Accounts of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John span the 33 years of Jesus’ life. Yet more than one quarter of all they wrote describes but one week – Holy Week. This is not surprising. Christ came to earth to be the Good Shepherd, to lay down his life for the sheep (John 10:11; Zechariah 13:7-9). In this chapter we begin our study of Holy Week. However, on the day before Palm Sunday, a special event took place which we must not quickly pass over. Jesus’ body was prepared for the grave, as we learned in chapter 10.
Palm Sunday: The triumphal entry into Jerusalem – Luke 19:29-44; Matthew 21:1-11; Mark 11:1-11; John 12:12-19
棕榈主日：以得胜者的身份进入耶路撒冷 – 路加福音19：29-44 马太福音21：1-11 马可福音11：1-11 约翰福音12：12-19
Ride on, ride on, in majesty! In lowly pomp ride on to die. O Christ, thy triumphs now begin O’er captive death and conquered sin. 骑行，骑行，带着无上的威荣 在卑微的盛况中向死亡骑行 噢 基督，凯旋已经奏响 胜过死亡的毒勾，胜过罪恶的辖制
Ride on, ride on, in majesty! Thy last and fiercest strife is nigh; The Father on his sapphire throne Expects his own anointed Son. 骑行，骑行，带着无上的威荣 最后的战役来临，惨烈的战役来临 天父在那玉石的宝座上 期待着自己所膏的圣子归来
This hymn was written by Henry Milman. His words describe how the time had come for Jesus to complete his saving work. Several times Jesus had told the disciples of his death. Now it was time for Jesus to finish his self-sacrifice (Hebrews 7:27).
On Sunday, April 2, Jesus rode into Jerusalem on the back of a donkey. A crowd greeted him by waving palm branches (John 12: 13) and singing “Hosanna.” It was a proper way for the Lamb of God to enter the city. It was the day when the Jews selected a lamb to be killed for the Passover meal (Exodus 12:3).
In ancient times, kings entered into cities by riding their horses or chariots surrounded by their soldiers. On Palm Sunday Jesus rode on a donkey surrounded by his disciples. The great Prince of Peace made his way not in glory but in humility. The people waved their palm branches before the Lord. Palm branches were symbols of military victory, but Jesus came to fight sin, death, and the power of the devil. The crowd shouted the well-known words of Psalm 118:25-26, “Hosanna” (meaning “Oh, save us now”) and many in the crowd expected to be freed from Roman rule. While Jesus accepted their “Hosannas”, he knew he had come to free their souls. This was Jesus’ day to be honored, yet he wept tears of sorrow when viewing Jerusalem (Luke 19:41). The city was beautiful; its inhabitants were not.
As evening came, Jesus entered the temple, noticed the money changers and the animals waiting to be sold for sacrifice, then left. He returned to Bethany for the night.
Monday of Holy Week 圣周的星期一
Jesus curses a fig tree – Matthew 21:18-19
耶稣诅咒无花果树 – 马太福音21：18-19
On the morning of Monday, April 3, Jesus walked toward Jerusalem. He was very hungry when he came to a fig tree that should have had winter figs. However there were none, so he cursed the tree.
This was not an act of anger, but was a symbol and prophecy. Earlier Jesus had spoken a parable about a barren fig tree (Luke 13:6-9). Now he taught the same spiritual truth. Israel looked like a godly nation, but inside they had no fruits of repentance and faith. Thus, God would be forced to judge them.
Jesus cleanses the temple a second time – Luke 19:45-48
第二次洁净圣殿 – 路加福音19:45-48
From the fig tree Jesus went to the temple. At the start of his ministry he had cleaned the temple (see Chapter 2). Now, at the end, he was forced to do it again. Greed rather than worship and praise were to be seen everywhere. While the church leaders plotted Jesus’ death, it was the little children who sang his praise.
Monday of Holy Week came and went. Jesus returned to Bethany to sleep.
Tuesday of Holy Week 神圣的星期二
The fig tree is withered – Mark 11:20-25
枯萎的无花果树 – 马可福音11:20-25
Early the next morning Jesus and his disciples walked along the road to Jerusalem. The disciples saw the fig tree now completely withered away. They must have questioned how they might perform such miracles. Jesus quieted them by speaking of faith without doubt.
From there it was on to Jerusalem and Jesus’ last full working day in the public ministry. It was his last day to visit the temple, teach, and give warning to the Pharisees and Sadducees. It was the last day for him to call the nation to repentance.
Jewish leaders question Jesus’ authority – Luke 20:1-8
犹太领袖质疑耶稣的权柄 – 路加福音20:1-8
Jesus had just entered the temple when he was surrounded by religious leaders. By what right did he ride into Jerusalem as the Messiah, clean the temple, and then preach there? These were their questions, but their idea was to condemn him to death. In answer, Jesus asked them who had sent John the Baptist on his mission. John, a prophet of God, had declared Jesus to be the Messiah. The subject soon was dropped.
Parables to warn the Jewish leaders 警告犹太人领袖的比喻
The religious leaders of the Jews clearly had not believed the words of John. They did not accept Jesus as the promised Savior. As a final judgment on their unbelief, Jesus spoke three parables.
The Parable of the Two Sons – Matthew 21:28-32
两个儿子的比喻 – 马太福音21：28-32
The Parable of the Two Sons showed the leaders to be insincere. Many people who were known for leading sinful lives (tax collectors and prostitutes) came to believe in Jesus, repented and did the will of God the Father. But the Scribes, Pharisees and Sadducees who seemed so religious continued to reject the Savior.
The Parable of the Tenants – Matthew 21:33-46
租户的比喻 – 马太福音 21：33-46
The Parable of the Wicked Tenants was spoken to show how rebellious the Jews were and how this would soon result in the death of God’s Son. Who do the people in the parable represent?
- The landowner = God the Father家主=天父上帝
- The vineyard = God’s rule of Israel in Old Testament times葡萄园=在旧约时期上帝治理以色利的法则
- The tenants = Rulers, teachers, leaders租户们=官长、教师、领袖们
- The servants = Old Testament prophets, John the Baptist 仆人们=旧约的先知们，施洗约翰
- The son = Jesus Christ, Son of God 儿子=耶稣基督，上帝的儿子
Furthermore, Jesus noted that since the Jews had rejected him, Christianity now would be offered to Gentiles. “The stone the builders rejected has become the cornerstone” (Luke 20:17). And this is just what happened.
The Parable of the Wedding Banquet – Matthew 22:1-14
婚宴的比喻 – 马太福音 22：1-14
One final time, in the Parable of the Wedding Feast Jesus warned the Jewish leaders to turn from their evil ways so that judgment would not come upon them. The Lord also repeated that the gospel, rejected by the Jews, would be offered to Gentiles.
Jesus is questioned by the Jewish leaders
The Jewish leaders did not arrest and kill Jesus immediately because they feared the people. Only two days earlier a crowd had greeted Jesus as their king. Thus the leaders decided to try to catch Jesus in a mistake. So they began to ask him tricky questions.
Paying taxes to Caesar – Luke 20:20-26
交税给凯撒 – 路加福音 20：20-26
The first question had to do with taxes. They asked “Is it right to pay taxes to Caesar or not?” (Matthew 22:17). If Jesus answered “yes,” the Jewish people would have become angry, at least the ones who believed that God, not the emperor, was their real ruler. On the other hand, a “no” answer would have made Jesus a traitor to Rome and guilty of treason.
Jesus’ response covers the whole subject in a single sentence. “Give to Caesar what is Caesar’s, and to God what is God’s” (Matthew 22:21). There is an earthly kingdom and a spiritual kingdom. The duties which people have toward both must be kept separated and should not be in conflict.
The resurrection and marriage – Luke 20:27-40
复活与婚姻 –路加福音 20：27-40
The Pharisees and Herodians had failed. So the Sadducees took their turn at trying to trap Jesus. Although they did not believe in the resurrection of the body, they still asked the Lord about the afterlife. Their story was an effort to make the resurrection seem to be impossible. Jesus’ answer was that the human and family relationships of this world will not be part of the next life.
The Sadducees seem to have accepted the first five books of the Bible. They had quoted words from Deuteronomy (25:5-6) to try to trap Jesus. Now he answered by quoting from Exodus (3:6), “I am the God of your father, the God of Abraham . . . Isaac . . . Jacob.” God did not say “I used to be the God” but “I am the God” of the Israel’s patriarchs who had died centuries earlier. How could the relationship between God and believers continue if there was no life after death? The Sadducees were silenced.
The greatest commandment – Matthew 22:34-40
最大的诫命 马太福音 22：34-40
With the Sadducees defeated, the Pharisees tried one last time to trap Jesus. For us to understand the question they asked, we must remember that the Pharisees put all their faith in obeying religious laws, some given by God, others invented by humans. They now asked Jesus, “which one of these laws is the most important?”
Christ answered by explaining that all God’s Law was important and that the Commandments could be summarized in one word – love. The Pharisees who asked the question could only agree.
Jesus responds to the Jewish leaders
Who is the Christ? – Luke 20:41-44
基督是谁？– 路加福音 20：41-44
The Jewish leaders had tried to trap Jesus, but they failed. Now for one last time, Jesus tried to reason with them. He asked a question of his own, not to trap them but rather to free them from their blindness. The question concerned David’s Son and David’s Lord. They were expecting a Messiah who would be like David (a man and a king). However, the Old Testament (Psalm 110) also referred to the Messiah as “Lord” (almighty God). Jesus was presenting himself to the Jews as the true Messiah – true Man and true God. Such a teaching got the attention of the people but was hated by the Jewish leaders.
Jesus rebukes the Jewish leaders– Luke 20:45-47; Matthew 23:1-39
耶稣斥责犹太人的领袖 – 路加福音 20：45-47 马太福音23：1-39
The Pharisees and Scribes were to “sit in Moses’ seat” (Matthew 23:2), in other words, to teach the people the Scriptures. The disciples and people were told to listen to the Bible teachings. But the religious leaders refused to practice what they preached.
They did all they could to bring themselves a good reputation, never stopping to give glory to God; they showed off before the people; they insisted on being called “rabbi” (my teacher). They had no humility in their lives.
In one of his longer speeches Jesus attacked their hypocrisy. Several times he repeated the word “woe,” meaning “damnation is coming to you.” In Matthew’s account Christ spoke against the Scribes and Pharisees:
- Because the false doctrine they taught led people away from salvation. 因为教导错误的教义，他们带领人们远离了救恩。
- Because they sought followers and made them hypocrites worse than they themselves. 因为他们广收门徒，使这些门徒比他们自己更加伪善。
- Because they did not keep their oaths to God and made others keep their earthly oaths. 因为他们没有遵守对上帝的誓言，并且使其他人遵守他们属世的誓言。
- Because they did not understand the most important points of the Law. 因为他们没有明白律法中最重要的观点。
- Because they insisted on being clean on the outside but didn’t care about inner (moral, spiritual) purity. 因为他们坚持外表保持清洁，却不关心内心（道德，属灵）的洁净.
- Because they pretended to be pure but were evil inside. 因为他们假装纯洁，内心却充满诡诈。
- Because they honored the dead prophets but at the same time were planning Jesus’ death. 因为他们尊敬死去的先知，同时却在计划着杀害耶稣。
Jesus praises the widow’s offering – Luke 21:1-4
耶稣称赞寡妇的奉献 – 路加福音 21:1-4
Jesus had been in the temple for several hours that Tuesday morning. He had been opposed by the very people who should have fallen to their knees and worshiped him. Were there any faithful Israelites left in Jerusalem?
As Jesus looked around he saw a widow drop two small coins in the temple offering box. There were still some true Israelites. This woman trusted in God’s care and answered with her love. Here was a believer who owned nothing, yet, at the same time, had the greatest treasure – salvation.
Acceptance and Rejection 接受与拒绝
Greek people want to see Jesus – John 12:20-36
希腊人想见耶稣 – 约翰福音12:20-36
While Jesus was looking at the widow the disciples reported that some Greeks wished to speak to him. They were starting to come to faith. These Gentiles had begun to realize Jesus was their Savior. 33 years earlier Simeon (see Chapter 1) had called Jesus “a light for revelation to the Gentiles” (Luke 2:32), and now that prophecy was being fulfilled.
Jesus spent most of his earthly ministry preaching to the Jews. After his resurrection, the Gentiles would hear of him. By that time Jesus would be exalted in his full glory.
Jewish leaders continue to reject Jesus – John 12:37-50
犹太人的领袖继续拒绝耶稣 – 约翰福音12:37-50
When Jesus entered the temple that Tuesday morning his authority immediately was challenged. As he left the temple that forenoon, he again told where he got his authority. He and the Father are One.
Review of Chapter 11 第十一章复习
Psalm 118 is a historically important Psalm. It probably is the psalm Jesus sang with his disciples (Mark 14:26) as they left the upper room for the Garden of Gethsemane. Read Psalm 118 and look for references Holy Week. How many you can find?
诗篇118篇是具有历史意义的诗篇。 这可能是耶稣与他的门徒-(马可福音14:26)离开最后晚餐的上房到客西马尼园时唱的诗篇。 阅读诗篇118篇并寻找与圣周有关的内容 。 你能找到多少？
The miracle Jesus worked, when he cursed the fig tree, is different from all his other miracles. How is it different?
The Parable of the Tenants was a warning to the Jewish religious leaders. How is this parable a warning to you?
The Parable of the Wedding Banquet leads us to think about our relationship to Jesus. Ephesians 5:25-27 also describes Jesus as the Husband and the Church as his wife. Find one other place in the Bible where this illustration is used.
婚宴的比喻引导我们思考我们与耶稣的关系。以弗所书5:25-27也把耶稣描述为丈夫,教会是他 的妻子。 在圣经中另找一个使用此比喻的地方。
Jesus tells Christians to honor their government by paying taxes. When must a Christian respectfully disobey the government? See Daniel 3:16-18; Acts 5:27-29.
耶稣告诉基督徒要通过纳税来尊重他们的政府。 基督徒什么时候不得不以恭敬的态度不遵从政府？ 见但以理书3:16-18;使徒行传5:27-29。
Read John 12:20-36. Why was Jesus filled with great joy on this occasion while at the same time he was greatly troubled? Why was he troubled? Why was Jesus eager to glorify the Father’s name by suffering on the cross? See Hebrews 12:2.
请读约翰福音12:20-36。 为什么耶稣在这个场合充满了极大的喜悦,而与此同时,他却深受困扰？他为什么很苦恼？ 为什么耶稣渴望在十字架上受苦来荣耀父的圣名？参看希伯来书12:2