第十二章 圣周的事件 -2
In the previous lessons… 在前面的课程中
I. The Birth and Childhood of John and of Jesus
II. The Baptism and Temptation of Jesus
III. Jesus ministers in Judea (Spring 27-Spring 28 – about 1 year)
耶稣在犹大传道 （公元27 年春 – 28 年春 - 约一年）
IV. Jesus ministers in Galilee (Spring 28-Spring 29 – about 1 year)
耶稣在加利利传道 （公元28年春 – 29年春 -约一年）
V. Jesus’ Withdrawals (Spring 29 to Fall 29 – about 6 months)
耶稣的退隐 （公元29年春 到29年秋 - 大约六个月）
VI. Later Judean Ministry and back to Galilee (Fall of 29)
VII. The death journey – from Galilee – ultimately to Jerusalem (Fall of 29 – Spring of 30)
死亡之旅 – 从加利利 – 最后到耶路撒冷（公元后二十九年秋 – 三十年春）
VIII. Events of Holy Week (7 days in Spring of 30)
Jesus spent Tuesday morning of Holy Week in the temple. There he condemned the Jewish leaders. Two days later these same men would have Jesus arrested and on Friday put him to death. In these last days Jesus continued educating the disciples by his words and his actions. Most importantly he left his church with a visible reminder of his love and salvation – the Lord’s Supper.
Signs of the end of the age – Luke 21:5-36 Matthew 24 & 25 Mark 13
末世的预兆 – 路加福音21：5-36 马太福音24 & 25 马可福音13
The Lord of the temple left the temple for the last time in the middle of a huge dispute. His disappointed disciples tried to see the brighter side. “Look, Teacher! What huge stones! What impressive buildings!” (Mark 13:1).
The Jewish historian Josephus described the temple in detail. Some stones were 40 feet long, 14 feet wide, and 20 feet high. The beautiful building had white marble pillars and silver and gold doors. Jesus, however, could see the false teaching that took place around the temple. He predicted its total destruction. Later, Jesus and his disciples stopped on the Mount of Olives and looked back at the temple across the valley. The disciples then asked when the temple would be left deserted. They also wondered when the world would come to an end.
Jesus was not willing to give the exact times. Indeed, in his state of humiliation, Jesus said that even he did not know (Matthew 24:36). But he did give them signs which would show when the end was near. It is almost as if Jesus looked at the hills and valleys and could see their destruction. Then his eyes saw the temple which would be destroyed. Finally, he looked off again into the distance.
For the most part, Matthew 24:4-14 describes the Last Days at the end of the world. Before Judgment Day there will be crises in the church (false christs, persecutions, a falling away from the true faith), in nature (famines, earthquakes) and in society (wars and rumors of war). Meanwhile, Matthew 24:15-28 speaks mostly of the destruction of Jerusalem and the temple. Forty years later, in April of A.D. 70, the Roman emperor Titus attacked Jerusalem. By August the city was destroyed and the temple was burned. Before this happened, however, many of the Christians in Jerusalem fled and found refuge in Pella, a city east of the Jordan. Finally, in Matthew 24:29-31 Jesus’ thoughts returned to Judgment Day and his own glorious return.
Jesus pointed out that believers must always be alert and use their lives wisely. The parables of the Thief in the Night, the Faithful and Evil Servants, the Ten Virgins, and the Talents all describe these truths.
The local shepherds grazed their sheep and goats together by day, but separated them at night. Jesus used this picture to describe Judgment Day. He, as Judge, King, and Shepherd, will on that day separate the believers who proved their love for him by their works (the sheep) from unbelievers (the goats). The believers will be received into heaven, while the unbelievers will be sent to hell.
The plot to kill Jesus – Luke 21:37-38; 22:1-6
杀害耶稣的阴谋 – 路加福音21：37-38，22：1-6
Earlier that day Jesus, the “Light” of the world, had shown his enemies to be the children of darkness (see the “woes” discussed in the last chapter). Darkness cannot tolerate the Light, so the rulers sought to put out the true Light, Jesus. However, since the Jewish leaders were aware how popular Jesus was, they were prepared to wait until the Passover festival was over before arresting him. God had a different plan, however. Jesus predicted that in two days he would be betrayed and soon face death.
While Christ and 11 of the disciples spent Tuesday night outside the city (Luke 21:37-38), Judas found an excuse to go into Jerusalem. There he sold his Lord and his soul for 30 pieces of silver.
What happened inside Judas? Some people say that, like the other disciples, Judas failed to understand the nature of Christ’s kingdom. As Jesus got less popular, his disciples’ hopes were smashed. Finally Judas decided to get out while he could, hopefully with a few dollars to his name.
While this may be correct, the Bible points out only one weakness in Judas – the love of money or greed (John 12:6; Matthew 26:15). This spiritual sickness grew in Judas until Satan took complete control of his soul. Satan usually finds the believer’s weakest spiritual link and attacks in that area.
The 30 silver coins which Judas received amounted to 120 days’ wages. The Scriptures were fulfilled (Zechariah 11:12-13; Ps. 41:9).
Wednesday of Holy Week 圣周的星期三
If the day we studied in Chapter 5 was Jesus’ busiest, then Tuesday of Holy Week must have been a close second. Wednesday, however, was a quiet day of teaching and prayer, a divine calm before the storm. The Bible does not mention any events of this day.
Thursday of Holy Week 圣周星期四
The Passover Celebration 庆祝逾越节
Peter & John prepare the room – Luke 22:7-13
彼得和约翰预备过节的房间 – 路加福音22：7-13
Jesus and the disciples spent Wednesday night in Bethany. The next morning the disciples began thinking about where they would eat the Passover meal. Jesus told Peter and John where to go and what to do. In Jerusalem they would find a man carrying water. This would be unusual because carrying water was women’s work. This man would show them a house where they could prepare the Passover meal.
What was Jesus thinking about on that Thursday? He knew his time had come. Recall that on Tuesday he had prophesied, “As you know, the Passover is two days away and the Son of Man will be handed over to be crucified” (Matthew 26:2). Jesus was to be handed over on the Passover day. Some 1476 years earlier the Children of Israel had been slaves in Egypt. When a series of plagues could not persuade the Egyptian pharaoh to release the Israelites, God sent to earth an angel of death.
The story is told in detail in Exodus 12: On the tenth day of the month the Jews selected perfect lambs (normal and healthy). Four days later (when the moon was full) they killed the lambs and put the blood on their doors. The meal that night (now the 15th day, since for the Jews evening marked the beginning of a new day) was the roasted lamb and bread without yeast. That night the angel of death passed over the houses marked with blood, but stopped at the others. The angel killed the oldest son in each of the houses where there was no blood marking the door. After this the Israelites were set free. From then on the Passover was celebrated to remember how God had saved them.
On Palm Sunday, the tenth day of the Jewish month, Jesus rode into Jerusalem to give himself as the sinless lamb of God. Now, four days later (Wednesday sundown to Thursday sundown), Jesus was prepared to offer himself as the Passover sacrifice. Through his blood the world would be freed from the slavery of sin (see 1 Peter 1:19).
Thursday Evening (Good Friday begins) 星期四晚上—（受难日开始）
It was now Friday, April 7, A.D. 30, the day of Jesus’ greatest sufferings, his trials, and his execution on the cross. We most often refer to this day as Good Friday. It was a good, yes even a great and glorious day for the world. For it was the day when Christ paid the price for the sins of all mankind and earned salvation for every soul.
The disciples argue about which is the greatest – Luke 22:24-27
门徒们的争论：谁最大 – 路加福音22：24-27
At dinner time Jesus and his disciples went into the upper room in the Jerusalem home. There they celebrated the Passover. The famous Leonardo da Vinci painting “The Last Supper” is very beautiful, but it does not picture the scene properly. The thirteen people did not sit up at a table. Rather they reclined on their left sides on large couches and ate from a central table or tables. Based on the customs of the day, we can make the following diagram:
The disciples began the evening arguing about which of them was the greatest. Luke mentions this arguing after he has told us about the sacrament which Jesus established. (Luke 22:24-27) This is an example of how Luke writes topically, rather than chronologically. Such arguments were often a problem among the disciples (Mark 9:33-34; Matthew 20:20-24). Jesus handled the matter just like he did a few days earlier (Matthew 20:25-28). However, Jesus promised the disciples rewards, not for service, but for faithfulness.
Jesus washes his disciples’ feet – John 13:1-17
耶稣为门徒洗脚 – 约翰福音13:1-17
Before Jews began to eat the Passover meal a servant or slave would wash their feet. This time Jesus himself rose, took water and towel in hand and began the washing. He did this out of love and for an example of humility. When he came to Peter, the disciple first refused to let Christ wash his feet. When Christ told him that this was his will, Peter then demanded even more washing.
Jesus eats the Passover with his disciples – Luke 22:14-18
耶稣与门徒同吃逾越节晚餐 – 路加福音22：14-18
There was much ceremony connected with the Passover meal. It was a celebration service. Psalms were sung (the Great Hallel), food was enjoyed together – in a special sequence – with a cup of wine shared between each course of food. Jesus’ heart was filled with joy. But Jesus’ joy was tempered by the fact that his suffering and death would happen this Friday which had begun with the setting of the sun on Thursday.
During the dinner Jesus reveals his betrayer – John 13:18-35
晚餐时耶稣透露了他的背叛者 – 约翰福音13：18-25
At last the Passover meal was served. A joyful mood prevailed as the lamb, bread without yeast, and bitter herbs were being eaten. But Jesus then made a shocking announcement: “One of you will betray me – one who is eating with me” (Mark 14:18). The disciples then became serious. Who was the betrayer?
If the diagram is correct, from across the table Peter motioned and whispered to John. John, in turn, rolled over onto his right side putting his head on Jesus’ chest. “Lord, who is it?” he asked (John 13:25). Jesus pointed out the traitor Judas. While Peter and John could now identify the betrayer, the rest of the disciples did not know who it was. Judas left immediately.
Jesus spoke to his believing disciples. He reminded his followers of his unity with the Father, said he soon would be glorified, and pointed out his coming sacrifice and return to heaven. Lastly, Jesus encouraged the disciples to love one another.
After the Passover Jesus establishes his Supper – Luke 22:19-20 Mark 14:22-25 Matthew 26:26-29
逾越节后耶稣设立他的晚餐 – 马可福音14:22-25 马太福音26:26-29
There have been different interpretations of the verses describing the Lord’s Supper, but we must simply accept what Jesus said.
After the Passover supper had been eaten, Jesus took a piece of the bread, said a prayer of thanksgiving, broke the bread and gave it to the disciples saying “Take and eat; this is my body . . .” Moments later he took a cup of wine, again gave thanks, and passed it to the disciples saying, “Drink from it, all of you. This is my blood . . .” (Matthew 26:27-28).
When we add the words of St. Paul (1 Corinthians 10:16-17; 11:23-29) to the Gospel accounts, we learn about the nature of the Supper. Jesus blessed the bread and wine while he spoke the prayer of thanksgiving. That is to say, Jesus set the bread and wine aside for a new and holy use. What he gave and what the disciples received were bread and wine together with his own body and blood. This was the same body that would die on the cross, the same blood given for mankind’s salvation (Luke 22:20). Nowhere did Jesus show that the bread and wine were transformed (changed; transubstantiated) into the body and blood and were no longer bread and wine (again see 1 Corinthians 10:16). Jesus also did not say that the bread and wine merely represented (were merely a picture of) his life-giving body and blood.
The Bible not only describes the nature of the Lord’s Supper, but also gives its meaning. Christ said that the Supper was a new covenant or promise from God to us: “for the forgiveness of sins” (Matthew 26:28). By his death on the cross Jesus would pay for the sins of mankind. Sinners receive the blessing of his death (forgiveness of sins, life, and salvation) by taking part of the meal and through faith in God’s promise (new covenant).
圣经不仅仅描述了主的晚餐的属性，还赋予它意义。基督表明圣餐是一个新的约定，即上帝给我们“使罪得赦”的应许（马太福音26:28）。通过死在十字架上，耶稣为人类的罪付上代价。罪人则通过领受这样的圣餐，相信神的应许（新约），就能得到他的死亡所带来的祝福（罪得赦免，生命和救赎）。 Christ also said that his followers should repeat the Supper often to remember him. In this way they would declare his death until he comes on Judgment Day (1 Corinthians 11:24-26).
Jesus comforts and counsels his disciples – John 14:1-16:3
耶稣安慰和指导他的门徒 – 约翰福音14：1-16：33
The time had come for Jesus to say good-by to his disciples. There was much to say but little time to say it. The final words were words of comfort.
John’s Gospel, chapters 14-16, contains Jesus’ famous sermon on love.
Perhaps it is best to show it with a series of circles. The center circle shows the unity of the Trinity, the relationship of Father, Son and Holy Spirit (Comforter). Surrounding the Trinity is the circle of believers. Jesus spoke of the Triune God’s relationship to them and their duties to one another. Finally, he warned the believers about the unbelievers who, in turn, surrounded them. In times of persecution the faithful must turn their hearts toward God.
Christ would leave for heaven. However, through the working of the Holy Spirit in their hearts, the disciples would remember their time with the Lord and understand the meaning of his teachings.
Jesus says more to the disciples on the way to Gethsemane
Jesus predicts Peter’s denial – Luke 22:31-39
耶稣预言彼得不认主 – 路加福音22：31-39
Earlier that evening Jesus had spoken about going away. Peter remembers that and so now he questioned the Lord about this. Jesus looked at the 11 disciples and then quoted Zechariah 13:7 showing that soon they would be scattered. After that time they would find him in Galilee. Where Jesus was going, they could not follow, but Peter refused to accept this statement. He had to be told that in a few hours, before a rooster crowed two times, he would deny Jesus three times.
Jesus directs the disciples to be prepared – Luke 22:35-38
耶稣嘱咐门徒做好准备 – 路加福音22：35-39
Jesus’ departure would mark a change in the disciples’ lives. Earlier they had preached among the people and were received kindly by them. Soon these people would meet the disciples again as they witnessed for Christ. This time they would meet them with a sword.
Jesus prays for the apostles – John 17:1-19
耶稣为门徒的祷告 – 约翰福音17：1-19
Jesus had taught his disciples, and now he prayed for them as well. His prayers followed the same order as his sermon. He prayed for the glory which is his because he was God’s Son. Then Jesus prayed for his faithful disciples. So far he had been with them and had protected them in person. In the future they would be protected by the Sanctifier (the Holy Spirit).
Jesus prays for all believers – John 17:20-26
耶稣为所有信徒祷告 – 约翰福音17：20-26
Through the ministry of the disciples many others would believe. Jesus prayed for the unity of the whole church (the believers).
Jesus had now said enough. It was time to suffer and die.
Jesus prays for himself – Luke 22:39-46
耶稣为他自己祷告 – 路加福音22：39-46
Late on Thursday Jesus and his disciples had left the room where they had finished eating the Passover meal. They then walked out of Jerusalem, crossed the brook Kidron (John 18:1), and climbed the gentle slopes of the Mount of Olives where they entered a garden known as Gethsemane. Jesus’ greatest struggle began in a garden just like Adam and Eve’s greatest suffering began in another garden – Eden.
That Passover night there was a full moon, but the olive trees made the garden darker with their shadows. But there was a greater darkness which had fallen upon the world. There was a darker enemy than Judas who was on his way to the Garden. Satan, the Prince of Darkness, also came to tempt Jesus. He gathered his forces for an attack upon the second Adam, Jesus. He tried to get Christ to fall just as he had gotten Adam and Eve to sin in the Garden of Eden.
Jesus left eight disciples at the entrance to the garden and took Peter, James, and John farther inside (Matthew 26:37; Mark 14:33). They had seen Jesus in his full glory on the Mount of Transfiguration. Now they would see him in his great struggle and sadness. Jesus said to them, “My soul is overcome with sorrow to the point of death . . . Stay here and keep watch” (Mark 14:34).
A great sorrow caused Jesus to throw himself to the ground and resulted in a sweat like blood (Luke 22:44). This sorrow was produced by three unholy terrors. First, the eternal Son of God faced a condition totally strange to himself – his own death. Second, his death was a substitute for others. He would have to bear all people’s sins on his own shoulders and feel the full fury of God’s justice. In the garden Jesus was already accepting this load. Finally, Satan was given freedom to try to scare Jesus into sinning. While all this was happening, the disciples slept. Rather than judging the disciples too harshly, we would do well to examine the reason for their slumbers. He found them very tired because of their sorrow (Luke 22:45). Their spirits were willing to obey Jesus (Mark 14:38), but their bodies were totally out of energy.
Good Friday Night 受难日晚上
At long last, in the early hours of Good Friday, Jesus reported, “The time has come” (Mark 14:41). The right time about which Jesus had so often spoken had now arrived. The two opposing forces would now meet in battle: Jesus and Satan.
Review of Chapter 12 第十二章的复习
Read the words of Jesus in Matthew 24 about the Last Days – the age in which we are living. How do these words help you to endure the difficulties of the Last Days?
Read John chapter 13. What keeps the Christian actively at work during these Last Days?
Reflect on the meal of Jesus’ body and blood, the Lord’s Supper. How does this meal strengthen Christians to love one another in these Last Days?
Read through John chapters 14, 15 & 16. These chapters contain counsel for Christians as they live in this wicked and dangerous world. Which sections were especially helpful for you as you read them today?
Imagine you were one of the Twelve. Jesus took you with him into the Garden of Gethsemane. Would you have watched over Jesus and prayed? Or would you have fallen asleep?