In the previous lessons…在前面的课程中
- I. Introduction 导言
- II. The Birth and Childhood of John and of Jesus 约翰和耶稣的出生和童年
- III. The Baptism and Temptation of Jesus 耶稣的受洗和受到试探
- IV. Jesus ministers in Judea (Spring 27-Spring 28 – about 1 year) 耶稣在犹大传道 （公元27 年春 – 28 年春 - 约一年）
- V. Jesus ministers in Galilee (Spring 28-Spring 29 – about 1 year) 耶稣在加利利传道 （公元28年春 – 29年春 -约一年）
Jesus sends out the Twelve – Luke 9:1-6; Matthew 10:5-52
耶稣差派十二个门徒 – 路加福音9：1-6 马太福音10：5-52
It was probably during the early months of A.D. 29 that Jesus made his final preaching trip through Galilee. As he went from village to village preaching and healing, two terrible facts kept troubling his soul. First, the people were spiritually lost. Second, the Jewish religious leaders were not giving proper spiritual help and advice to the people.
Jesus’ love and concern now caused him to act. He called the disciples together and then sent them to preach to the people. However, before sending them out he gave them a set of guidelines to use throughout their ministries (Matthew 10:5-52). His instructions were as follows:
The Target (vv 5-6). Jesus told the disciples to do the work for which he was calling them. At this time they were to preach only to Israelites. Later they would be sent to all people (Acts 1:8).
The Tools (vv 7-10). The Gospel makes the ministry. The pastor’s great tool is the message of God’s love for his people. The miracles were only to be a witness to the preaching of the Word.
The Method (vv 11-15). Armed with the Word, the disciples were to go in peace, wisdom, and innocence.
The Troubles (vv 16-25). The job was not going to be easy. The disciples were warned to be alert and morally blameless. When the forces of Satan worked against them, the Holy Spirit would be with the disciples and work through them. The message of Christ would sometimes divide families. Unbelievers would accuse the apostles of working with Satan’s power, just as they had accused Christ of that.
The Triumph (vv 26-40). To help them stand strong against the forces of evil the disciples were to remember that the Almighty God is all-knowing, always present with his people, and always takes care of the people who are doing his work. Jesus himself would someday praise his faithful servants before his Father in heaven. Finally, through their preaching of the Gospel others would come to faith.
After Jesus had finished speaking to the disciples he sent them out in pairs. Perhaps they traveled and preached for as long as a month. We are not told. However, they came back filled with happiness at seeing how God had blessed the preaching of his Word.
John is executed – Matthew 14:6-12
约翰被处死 – 马太福音14：6-12
Sometime during March of A.D. 29, while the disciples were still preaching among the people, news of a terrible murder reached Jesus. John the Baptist had been executed by Herod because he had preached against the king’s adultery. Jesus must have been horrified by the ugly details of the story. But Jesus also was full of deep sorrow. The Forerunner’s life and work had been ended. Jesus knew that soon he would lay down his life even for the likes of the sinners who had beheaded John (Mark 9:12-13).
Jesus’ Withdrawals (Spring 29 to Fall 29 – about 6 months)
耶稣的退隐 （公元29年春 到29年秋 - 大约六个月）
Jesus’ First Withdrawal 耶稣第一次退隐
Just as John’s imprisonment marked the beginning of Jesus’ Galilean ministry (see Chapter 3) now John’s death marked its end. From this time on Jesus tried to stop his public ministry and teach the disciples in private. We call this his first withdrawal (drawing back from public ministry). This first effort to escape the crowds took him to the area near to Galilee.
Jesus withdraws to grieve John’s death – Matthew 14:13-14
耶稣为悲伤约翰的去世而退隐 – 马太福音14：13-14
When the disciples returned from their preaching trip they were full of excitement. Jesus wanted to discuss what they had done and think over John’s death. So he kept away from the crowd. Together with the disciples he left Capernaum and got on a boat which would take them six miles north to a more deserted area.
Jesus feeds 5,000 – Luke 9:10-17
耶稣喂饱五千人 – 路加福音9：10-17
At the same time the crowd on shore determined to see Jesus. They set out on foot toward Bethsaida Julia. Some people ran and were on hand to meet the ship when it put in to shore. They were joined by some of the people going to Jerusalem to celebrate the Passover..
It was clear that Jesus could not be alone with the disciples. Once again, as he had done so often in the past, Jesus disregarded his own feelings. His love moved him to heal the sick. His love compelled him to preach the Kingdom of God to them.
As evening approached, the people became hungry. Jesus’ pity caused him to use his power again. Jesus ordered the people to sit down in groups on the green grass of the hillside. Then Jesus said a prayer over two small fish and five barley rolls. Jesus then divided them into pieces and had his disciples hand them around to the people. In this simple way Christ performed a miracle of great power. 5000 men plus women and children ate their fill, and 12 baskets of pieces were leftover.
Jesus walks on the water – Matthew 14:22-36
耶稣在水面上行走 – 马太福音14：22-36
Jesus’ miracle fed the crowd with bread and fish, but this also gave the crowd some new ideas. They did not see Jesus as a savior from sin. Instead, they saw him as a free doctor, a person who could give them food, and a king who would drive out the Romans. So now they were prepared to make Jesus their king, by force, if that would be necessary (John 6:15).
Jesus knew their thoughts, and he wanted no part of their plans. Thus he sent away the disciples (who seemed to have been influenced by the crowd’s ideas) and ordered them to take a boat to Capernaum. Soon it would be night, so he sent the people away and then went himself to a mountain to pray. Earlier (see Chapter 4) Jesus had spent a night in prayer before selecting his disciples.
Now he prayed for strength to teach the people what his true purpose was. While Jesus prayed, the disciples rowed. About 3:00 in the morning he decided to help his followers. For eight hours they had been rowing against the wind and had rowed only two-thirds of a mile. Now Jesus showed his power over the laws of nature. He simply walked across the lake to the boat. At first the disciples thought that Jesus was a ghost. Then, just when he was ready to climb into the boat Peter jumped out and tried to walk on the water to meet Jesus.
Peter showed that he had the faith of a hero but also the faith of a coward. As long as he looked at Jesus and trusted his Word he made good progress. However, when he became concerned about the wind and waves Peter began to sink. In his great fear he cried out for help. Jesus reached out and saved him.
Once in the boat, Jesus made the water quiet, again showing his control over nature. This miracle washed the spiritual sleep from the disciples’ eyes. Though they had not believed after the feeding of the 5000, they now boldly declared: “Truly you are the Son of God” (Matthew 14:33).
Jesus’ Bread of Life sermon – John 6:22-71
耶稣关于生命之粮的信息 – 约翰福音6：22-71
When the morning sun rose over Galilee, the crowd began looking for Jesus. Unable to find him near Bethsaida Julia, they looked near Capernaum. In time they found him there in the synagogue.
Knowing that the crowd was still looking for a king to give them earthly blessings and not for a spiritual Messiah, Jesus preached a most timely sermon. He did speak about bread. He said that in the Old Testament it was God, not Moses, who fed the people manna in the wilderness. In this way the LORD had prolonged their earthly lives (Exodus 16:1-15). Now Jesus himself, sent from heaven, is the bread which gives eternal life. Those who wanted to be saved must believe in him.
If one listens carefully to this sermon, he will hear the great ideas of salvation: grace alone, faith alone, Christ alone. Yet the crowd did not like much of what Christ said. They were upset to learn that Jesus would not immediately take care of all their physical needs.
After this event Jesus lost much of his popularity. “From this time many of his disciples turned back and no longer followed him” (John 6:66). Seeing this, Jesus asked the twelve disciples if they too wanted to leave him. But Jesus’ walk on the water and the sermon that followed had strengthened the faith in the disciples’ hearts. It was Peter who now made a bold statement of faith, confessing that Jesus was God’s Son and the only source of eternal life.
Jesus is Lord of the Sabbath – Luke 6:1-5
耶稣是安息日的主 – 路加福音6：1-5
Once again, the Pharisees are quick to accuse Jesus of doing wrong. Eating a few heads of grain from someone’s field was permitted. (See Deuteronomy 23:25.) But the Pharisees were accusing Jesus of violating the Sabbath law: Jesus’ disciples were “working” on the day when they were supposed to rest.
Once again, Jesus exposes his enemies’ ignorance of the Scripture. Jesus points to the occasion when David had ignored a ceremonial law in order to satisfy his own and his soldier’s hunger (1 Samuel 21:6).
In addition to this example, Jesus asserted the fact that he, the Son of Man, was here to fulfill the Sabbath law. The Sabbath law provided physical rest for God’s people. Jesus had arrived to provide a more important rest; spiritual rest. (See Matthew 11:28-30).
Jesus heals the man with a shriveled hand – Luke 6:6-11
耶稣医治了一个一只手枯干的人 – 路加福音6：6-11
Luke then mentions another time when the Pharisees were watching how Jesus would react to someone’s need for healing on the Sabbath. It may be the Pharisees had brought the man with the shriveled hand into the synagogue on the Sabbath. In any case, they were looking for an occasion to accuse Jesus of doing wrong by healing on the Sabbath.
The Pharisees’ logic was loveless. Jesus did not do what they wanted him to do; Jesus did not ignore the man’s need for healing. Jesus did the loving thing. The Pharisees grew angry and talked about what they should do to get rid of Jesus.
Jesus teaches about clean and unclean – Matthew 15:1-20
耶稣教导关于洁净的和不洁净的 – 马太福音15：1-20
Jesus’ popularity continued to be a concern for the Jewish rulers in distant Jerusalem. So the Sanhedrin, whose job it was to check the teachings of all preachers, sent men north to check on Jesus. These men accused Jesus’ disciples of doing wrong.
Religious Jews always washed their hands before eating. Some Pharisees even went so far as to suggest that not washing hands before eating was as serious a sin as adultery. The disciples did not wash nor did the multitude at the feeding of the 5000.
The Lord Jesus saw that the problem was not really hand washing. It was the difference between man-made laws and God’s Law. The Scribes and Pharisees considered man-made laws to be of equal importance with God’s Law. Jesus pointed out that they even used these man-made laws in ways that went against the Ten Commandments.
By this time a crowd had gathered hoping to hear an argument. Jesus explained that obeying God’s Law begins in the heart and is not a matter of just doing outward deeds.
The disciples, however, were upset that the powerful Pharisees were offended. Jesus explained that his Father would take care of these false teachers later. In the mean time, Jesus repeated that an unclean heart, not dirty hands, make a man a sinner.
Jesus’ Second Withdrawal 耶稣第二次“撤退”
After his meeting with the Jews who thought they could earn salvation by obeying the Old Testament laws, Jesus tried to withdraw for a second time. But once again Jesus was not able to be alone.
Jesus heals a Canaanite woman’s daughter – Matthew 15:21-28
耶稣医治迦南妇人的女儿 – 马太福音15：21-28
Jesus would have been arrested if he had gone to Judea at this time. So instead he went north and east to the area around the Gentile cities of Tyre and Sidon. Even there his presence soon became known.
There a Gentile woman came to Jesus and begged him to heal her demon-possessed daughter. But Jesus pretended not to be interested or care about her problem. At last, however, the reason for his unusual behavior became clear. He had let the woman exercise her faith, thus making it stronger. Then Jesus gladly healed her daughter.
In the Gospels there are several stories in which Jesus attracted Gentile followers: the Wise Men who followed his star (Matthew 2:1-12), the Samaritan woman at the well (John 4:4-26), the centurion at Capernaum (Matthew 8:5-13), and now the Canaanite woman. Nevertheless, during his earthly stay Jesus spent most of his energy working among the Jews. After going back to heaven, Jesus would attract to himself the Gentiles as well (Luke 2:32; John 12:32).
在福音书中有很多的故事，在这些故事里耶稣吸引来外邦的跟随者们：如跟随“他的星”的博士们（马太福音2:1-12）；井边的撒马利亚妇人（约翰福音4:4-26）；迦百农的百夫长（马太福音8:5-13）；以及现在迦南的妇人。虽然如此，当耶稣在世上的时候，他大部分的经历都倾注在犹太人身上。当回到天上之后，耶稣同样将外邦人引向他自己（路加福音2:32；约翰福音12：32）。 In general, then, the Gospels show the effect of Jesus’ word among the Jews, while the rest of the New Testament shows the power of that word among the Gentiles. Meanwhile, the New Testament as a whole presents Jesus as the only Savior for all mankind.
Jesus’ Third Withdrawal 耶稣第三次“撤退”
Apparently Jesus stayed for only a short time in the region of Tyre and Sidon. We are not told why he left so soon. Perhaps it was because crowds of curious people were again bothering him. Therefore Jesus withdrew for yet a third time.
Jesus heals a man who was unable to hear and speak – Mark 7:31-37
耶稣医治了一个耳聋舌结的人 – 马可福音7：31-37
The exact route of Jesus’ third withdrawal is not given in the Scriptures. The Master and his disciples probably crossed northern Galilee, then went south to the Sea of Galilee. From there they would have gone on to the partly pagan area of Decapolis (east of the Sea of Galilee). During the days of walking and the nights of camping out under the summer skies, Jesus taught the disciples many things.
The name of Jesus was big news in Decapolis. Therefore, a large crowd soon gathered, including many sick people, and one deaf and dumb man. Jesus took that man aside, touched his ear with his finger and touched his tongue with saliva from his mouth. At the command “be opened” the man’s ears and mouth were restored to their normal use.
Jesus feeds 4,000 – Mark 8:1-10
耶稣喂饱了四千人 – 马可福音8：1-10
When the crowd saw that Jesus had healed the man, they began to praise the God of Israel (Matthew 15:31). For the next three days they followed Jesus in the desert. The Lord knew that the heat of the summer sun and the lack of food would soon weaken the people. So he told the people to sit down, gave thanks, and with a few small fish and seven loaves of bread, Jesus fed 4000 men, plus many other women and children. There were seven baskets of leftovers collected after the meal.
Jesus sent the people away after they had eaten. Then, along with the disciples, he got on a boat and set sail for the opposite shore – the area of Magdala (also called Magadan and Dalmanutha).
Jewish leaders demand a sign from Jesus – Matthew 16:1-4
犹太人的领袖要求耶稣行一个神迹 – 马太福音16：1-4
Somehow the Galileans found out that Jesus was returning. As the boat came to shore, there were Pharisees and Sadducees waiting to meet him.
Normally the Pharisees and Sadducees were enemies. But both groups hated Jesus so much that they now were working together. The Pharisees held to every word of the Old Testament and tried to earn salvation by obeying its laws. The Sadducees used the Old Testament as just a general guide and didn’t even believe in life after death. Both groups, however, agreed that Jesus was not God’s Son or the Messiah. The two groups of Jewish leaders now commanded Jesus to do a miracle to prove that he was the Messiah. Apparently the feeding of the 4000 was not enough proof for them.
Jesus was astonished at their unbelief. They could read the signs of the weather (red sky in the morning, sailor take warning; red sky at night, sailor’s delight). But they could not read the signs that Jesus was God (his many miracles in Galilee and his teachings).
Jesus did not immediately follow their demands. Instead, he promised a final sign to show that he was God – the sign of Jonah. Just like Jonah came back after three days in the whale, Jesus would also rise from the dead.
Jesus’ Fourth Withdrawal 耶稣第四次“撤退”
Jesus’ stay in Galilee was short. After his run in with the Jewish leaders he left Galilee and the cities where he had preached and worked miracles. He headed for Bethsaida Julias, but first he stopped on a mountain in the northern part of Galilee.
Jesus warns his disciples against false teaching – Mark 8:13-21
耶稣警告他的门徒防备假教导 – 马可福音8：13-21
Jesus and the disciples got on a boat and sailed north. Although his heart was full of sorrow, he still continued to teach his disciples. He warned them not to become legalistic like the Pharisees or to deny Scripture like the Sadducees. He compared their errors to yeast in bread. And it was a powerful comparison. Just as a little yeast spreads through all the bread dough, any doctrinal error can spread through the whole teaching of salvation. Unfortunately, at this time the disciples missed the point of Jesus’ instruction.
Jesus gives sight to a man who is blind at Bethsaida – Mark 8:22-26
耶稣在伯赛大治好了一个瞎子 – 马可福音8:22-26
The boat sailed north until the Lord and his followers got off near Bethsaida Julia. Soon a blind man was led to Jesus. Christ, not wanting to gather a crowd, led the man to a place where they could be more alone. Then Jesus restored the man’s sight.
This time Jesus did not cure the man all at once, but little by little. However, when the man could see clearly, Jesus commanded him to keep silent about the miracle. He did not want another crowd to gather.
Review of Chapter 7 第七课复习
Return to the beginning of this lesson where we learned how Jesus sent out the Twelve. Jesus’ words to the Twelve are divided into 5 parts. Which of these 5 parts always apply to every effort of any church to do mission work?
Read Matthew 14:12-13a. What insight do these verses give you into the way Jesus grieved?
The Hebrew word “Sabbath” means “rest”. How was the Sabbath Day a picture of Jesus? See Exodus 20:8-11 and Colossians 2:16-17.
Review Matthew 15:21-28; Mark 7:24-30. Jesus tested the Canaanite woman’s faith before he healed her daughter.
a. How did this testing help the woman?
b. How did this testing help Jesus’ disciples?
c. Think about a testing of your faith which helped you.
What is “the sign of Jonah”? What does this sign prove to you about Jesus?