In the previous lessons…
I. The Birth and Childhood of John and of Jesus
II. The Baptism and Temptation of Jesus
III. Jesus ministers in Judea (Spring 27-Spring 28 – about 1 year)
耶稣在犹大传道 （公元27 年春 – 28 年春 - 约一年）
IV. Jesus ministers in Galilee (Spring 28-Spring 29 – about 1 year)
耶稣在加利利传道 （公元28年春 – 29年春 -约一年）
V. Jesus’ Withdrawals (Spring 29 to Fall 29 – about 6 months)
耶稣的退隐 （公元29年春 到29年秋 - 大约六个月）
VI. Later Judean Ministry and back to Galilee (Fall of 29)
Jesus goes to the Feast of Tabernacles – John 7:1-13
耶稣去守住棚节 – 约翰福音7：1-13
Throughout his life many people had tried to force Jesus into doing what they wanted done. Mary, for example had asked Jesus to help at the wedding in Cana. The five thousand who had been fed by the fish and bread wanted to force Jesus to become their earthly king. Now again well-meaning people tried to tell the Almighty Savior what he should do. This time it was Jesus’ own half-brothers (see Matt. 13:55; Mark 6:3).
The Feast of Tabernacles was about to take place. At this yearly event, held in October in A.D. 29, the Jews remembered the 40 years their ancestors had wandered in the wilderness by living in tabernacles (tents). Like thousands of other Galilean pilgrims, Jesus’ relatives were preparing for the trip to Jerusalem. They asked Christ to go along and do some miracles in the big city. Like so many others, they believed Jesus could be a Messiah who could lead Israel to political independence. But they failed to accept him as the deliverer from sin, eternal death, and the power of Satan.
Jesus did not go with them. But, once they had left, he and his disciples did go on to Jerusalem by themselves. In April of the next year Jesus would make his triumphal entry into Jerusalem. That was the right time according to his timetable.
Jesus teaches at the Feast – John 7:14-24
耶稣在节期教训人 – 约翰福音7：14-24
The Feast of Tabernacles lasted for 8 days. As Jesus taught the crowds, the Jewish leaders were unable to explain how Jesus had become so wise and learned. Jesus explained that his heavenly Father had taught him. This claim to be God’s Son angered the Jewish leaders.
Jesus exposed their desire to kill him. Quickly the Jewish leaders denied the accusation and returned to their false charge that Jesus was using demonic powers to do miracles and that Jesus was breaking the law by working miracles on the Sabbath.
Is Jesus the Christ – John 7:25-44
耶稣是基督吗 – 约翰福音7：25-44
The crowds were looking for a signal from their leaders. They now began to wonder if their leaders had concluded that Jesus was the Christ. The people were confused about Jesus. So Jesus again asserted – publicly, in the Temple area – that he was God’s Son. Some believed. The leaders tried to seize Jesus. But Jesus’ enemies were not able to harm him. Jesus’ time to suffer and die had not yet arrived.
One of the ceremonies observed at the Feast of Tabernacles included a portrayal of the rock which Moses struck in the desert so that water ran from it (Exodus 17). Jesus told the crowds that this rock was a picture of himself and of all who trusted in him (John 7:37-38). Paul restated this truth in 1 Corinthians 10:4.
The crowd was divided. Was Jesus a prophet or the Savior? Should He live or die? Even the temple guards sent to arrest him became confused.
The unbelief of the Jewish leaders (part 1) – John 7:45-53; 8:1
The great majority of the Jewish leaders rejected Jesus. But not all of them rejected Jesus. Nicodemus spoke up to defend Jesus. Nicodemus’ fellow leaders made fun of him. By asking Nicodemus, “Are you from Galilee?” they were saying Nicodemus was stupid to think Jesus could be the Christ. After Jesus’ death, Nicodemus will publicly confess his faith in Jesus by helping to bury his body (John 19:38-42).
A woman is caught in adultery – John 8:2-11
一个在行淫时被抓的妇人 – 约翰福音8：2-11
The day after the Feast ended, Jesus came to the temple courtyard. There the Jewish leaders tried to trap him. A woman caught in the act of adultery was brought before him. The Jews wondered whether or not he would forgive her sins, since the Law of Moses said this sin should be punished by stoning the sinner to death (Deuteronomy 22:24; Leviticus 20:10). The Lord answered with a single sentence: “If any one of you is without sin, let him be the first to throw a stone at her” (John 8:7; see Deuteronomy 17:7).
Jesus’ testimony is valid – John 8:12-30
耶稣的见证是有效的 – 约翰福音8：12-30
Jesus asserts that he is the LORD when he says “I AM the light of the world” (John 8:12). Think of Psalm 119:105. Compare John 1:1:14. This bold claim angered the Pharisees. They refused to believe that Jesus is the Son of God.
Jesus asserted that his testimony agrees with his other witness: His heavenly Father. Think of the testimony the Father gave on the day when Jesus was baptized: “This is my Son” (Matthew 3:15-17).
Jesus told the Jewish leaders that they were headed for eternal death. Jesus’ words warn us to avoid condemnation. Jesus’ words urge us to find life in Jesus alone. We must give our attention to Jesus’ words, the gospel invitation, so that we may believe and be saved.
The true children of Abraham – John 8:31-47
亚伯拉罕真正的后裔 – 约翰福音8：31-47
Some of the Jewish leaders in the crowd (remember Nicodemus) listened and believed. Jesus urged them to continue in the faith by clinging to the liberating gospel.
Others in the crowd (verse 33) rejected the idea that Jesus could set people free. They thought Jesus was talking about slavery in the sense of political or physical slavery. Jesus was talking about slavery to sin. Only the liberating gospel can set us sinners free from guilt and death so that we may live and not die eternally.
Jesus claims to be the eternal God – John 8:48-59
耶稣声称他是永远的上帝 – 约翰福音8：48-59
Jesus had come to the temple to speak, and he did just that. Predictably, He then discussed (John 8) many of the points he made earlier (John 7). He spoke of his authority which came from his position as God the Father’s Son, of the plot against his life, of his return to heaven, and of his claim to be the source of salvation. If Jesus were to be put to death it would not be an accident or the result of a misunderstanding. Jesus was to be judged on his claim to be the eternal Son of the Father (John 8:58), the Messiah, the Savior of the world. The verdict reached by the Jewish religious leaders was that he should be stoned. However, Jesus was not yet ready to sacrifice his life.
Jesus gives eyes to a man born blind – John 9
耶稣医治一个生来瞎眼的人 – 约翰福音9
In the New Testament Jesus is sometimes called the “light.” Isaiah the prophet looking forward to Christ said “The people living in darkness have seen a great light; on those living in the land of the shadow of death a light has dawned” (Isaiah 9:2). Simeon holding the baby Jesus in his arms knew that Jesus would be “a light … to the Gentiles” (Luke 2:32). The evangelist John (1:4) spoke about the Savior as “the light of men.” Finally, Jesus himself, as he addressed the Jews at the Feast of Tabernacles, exclaimed, “I am the light of the world. Whoever follows me will never walk in darkness, but will have the light of life” (John 8:12).
Now, after being rejected by the Jews and barely escaping from them, Jesus came upon a man who was blind from his birth. The twelve disciples did not think about the man’s personal misery. Instead they asked Jesus why he had this handicap. The disciples, like many people, believed that a person got sick or had problems because he had committed some big sin. Jesus corrected this false idea and directed them away from the cause to the cure.
The Lord used this blind man to talk about his earlier teaching. Just as Jesus brought physical light (sight) to the dark world of the blind man, so Jesus brings spiritual light to souls in the darkness of sin.
Once again, however, hatred for Jesus blinded the Pharisees to the point that they refused to see the Light of the world. They now tried to get the man whom Jesus healed to turn against him. But his new eyesight had let in true spiritual vision.
Jesus is the Good Shepherd – John 10:1-21
耶稣是好牧人 – 约翰福音10：1-21
The events which followed the healing of the blind man filled Jesus’ heart with grief. The religious leaders of the Jews could not care for the people of God. They had already spoken threats against those who said that Jesus was the Christ (John 9:22). And they followed through by evilly treating the case of the former blind man (9:34). Turning to the Pharisees, the disciples, the blind man, and all who could hear, Jesus spoke of shepherds and sheep (pictures that hearers of the Old Testament could easily understand, Psalm 23; Isaiah 40:11; Ezekiel 34).
First Christ showed he was different from the false leaders. They were false shepherds; they were only hired to care for the sheep; they didn’t really care about them, but ran away when danger came. But Jesus was a Good Shepherd. He knows his sheep, loves them, and is willing to give his own life to protect them.
Then Christ described his relationship to believers. Believers listened to their Shepherd’s voice. They followed their Shepherd and thus remained safe. Jesus knew his sheep. He offered them eternal life, and no one could take the sheep away from him.
Jesus also spoke of calling others (the Gentiles) to himself. He explained that he was the only way to salvation. This salvation Jesus would earn for all people through his willing sacrifice on Calvary’s cross.
This speech of Jesus is a New Testament version of the 23rd Psalm. Some of the Jews were stirred to faith when they heard it. Others said, “He is demon-possessed and raving mad. Why listen to him?” (John 10:20).
Jesus Returns to Galilee 耶稣回到加利利
At the house of Mary and Martha – Luke 10:38-42
在玛利亚和马大的家里 – 路加福音10：38-42
Jesus traveled into Judea to a town called Bethany. There he stayed at the home of Martha and Mary (about whom we will learn more in later chapters). Martha was full of energy. She wanted to be a perfect hostess to Jesus. Mary sat and listened to Jesus speak. Mary was the wiser. Christ praised Mary for choosing the one thing she really needed. After all, “The Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve” (Matthew 20:28).
At Caesarea Philippi – Luke 9:18-27
在凯撒利亚腓立比城 – 路加福音9：18-27
Jesus’ search for privacy and rest took him from Bethsaida Julias to the very northern part of Israel, to the city of Caesarea Philippi. This 30-mile walk was uphill all the way. Jesus carried with him a concern for the spiritual welfare of all mankind – of the disciples in particular. Thus, Jesus asked the disciples, “Who do people say I am?” Their answer was disappointing. The Jews considered Jesus to be a prophet sent from God, but not God’s Son, the Savior. Jesus faced the disciples and ask, “Who do you say I am?” It was Peter who gave the correct answer. He confessed, “You are the Christ, the Son of the living God” (Matt. 16:16).
耶稣希望找到安静和隐秘的地方，这个想法将他从伯赛大带到了以色列的最北边，凯撒利亚腓立比城。这30英里的路全部都是上坡。耶稣心中挂念着全人类属灵的福祉——尤其是他门徒们的。因此，他问他们：“人说我是谁？” 门徒们回答是令人失望的。犹太人以为耶稣是上帝派来的先知，但不是上帝的儿子，他们的救主。耶稣直面门徒们并问他们说：“你们说我是谁？” 彼得给出了正确的答案。他宣告说：“你是基督，是永生神的儿子。”（马太福音16:16）。
While Jesus was happy with Peter’s answer, he quickly added that it was God who had created this faith within Peter. Anyone who makes such a Peter-like confession will gain entry into the Kingdom of God. Upon this truth the church is built. Furthermore, Jesus commanded the believers (the Church) to use God’s Law to tell unrepentant sinners that they will not enter heaven, and to use the Gospel of Jesus Christ (including the Sacraments) to unlock the gates of the kingdom for those who do repent.
Jesus knew from Peter’s confession that the disciples understood he was God’s Son. Yet they still did not understand his plan for saving the world. In order to explain this plan Jesus now began to give them details about his coming death and resurrection. Jesus said that soon they would go to Jerusalem where he would be executed by the Jewish religious leaders. But on the third day he would come to life again.
At least once before Jesus had told about his death (John 3:14). This time, however, Peter objected. Pulling Jesus aside, Peter told Jesus he was wrong to speak about dying. Jesus answered, “Out of my sight, Satan!” (Mark 8:33). These were the same words Jesus had directed toward the Devil in the wilderness two and a half years earlier, and for good reason. Both the devil and Peter tried to keep Jesus from fulfilling his saving mission.
Jesus then went on to give a sermon to his disciples. He told them why Peter’s human point of view was wrong. “What good is it for a man to gain the whole world, yet lose his own soul? Or what can a man give in exchange for His soul?” (Mark 8:36-37).
The Transfiguration – Luke 9:28-36
登山变像 – 路加福音9：28-36
Six days later Jesus’ closest disciples (Peter, James, and John) had an unforgettable experience. John later wrote concerning it “We have seen his [Jesus’] glory. . . (John 1:14). Peter wrote, “We were eyewitnesses of his majesty. . .” (2 Peter 1:16).
As frequently was His custom, Jesus went up on a mountain to pray in the evening. This time he and his three disciples went up the side of a mountain, probably Mt. Hermon. As he climbed, Jesus thought about his own sufferings and death was on his mind.
During the night while the disciples slept, Jesus’ divine nature which was usually invisible, suddenly showed itself. Jesus began to glow like a great white light. While he was in this “transfigured” (changed) condition, Moses the lawgiver, and Elijah, the great prophet, joined him. They discussed together Jesus’ death. This event gave Jesus the comfort and strength he needed to continue on toward his death.
While Jesus was transfigured the disciples woke up and saw him. Not knowing what to do or say, Peter suggested that he build little shelters for the glorious trio.
We may wonder why only these three disciples were blessed with this experience, just as they had been singled out once before (Luke 8:51-56). Perhaps it was to help prepare them also for their later lives. James would be the first disciple to die for his faith (Acts 12:2). The knowledge of Jesus’ resurrection and this vision of glory must have given him strength during his own death! Peter was the most important missionary to the Jews. He also would be put to death by ungodly men. The sight of the glorified Jesus made him bold to confess him as the Messiah (2 Peter 1:16-18). Finally, for John the transfiguration was a proof that Jesus was God (John 1:14), and it was a source of strength for him as well. He was the last disciple to die. While exiled to an island and separated from fellow believers, he could remember the glory which awaits the faithful, even the glory of Moses and Elijah (Rev. 1:9).
Jesus heals a boy with an evil spirit – Luke 9:37-43a
耶稣医治被鬼附着的男孩 – 路加福音9：37-43a
The next morning, Jesus and his disciples quietly walked back down the mountain. At the bottom, however, they found a large crowd gathered.
Jesus soon learned that in the crowd was a poor young boy. He could not talk or hear; he had symptoms of epilepsy; and he was demon-possessed. Furthermore, the disciples had not been able to help him.
Jesus was angered by the merciless, miracle seeking crowd. He had mercy on the father and his only son. As usual, Jesus strengthened the faith of the father and cured the boy.
Jesus again predicts his death – Luke 9:43b-45
耶稣再次预言自己的死 – 路加福音9：43b-45
As mentioned earlier, the death of John the Baptist was a turning point in Jesus’ life. From then on Jesus became firmly convinced that soon he must suffer and die for the sins of man. Jesus continued to think about his suffering, death, and resurrection. After leaving the crowd and the healed boy behind, Jesus continued to teach the disciples about the sorrowful, yet glorious days ahead.
Jesus pays the temple tax – Matthew 17:24-27
耶稣付圣殿税 – 马太福音17：24-27
Perhaps it was mid-September when Jesus and his disciples left the area of Caesarea Philippi. They traveled along the west side of the Sea of Galilee until they came to Capernaum. There Peter was met by a tax collector.
Every Jewish male over 20 years of age had to pay a tax each year to support the temple in Jerusalem (Exodus 30:12-16). While the tax was generally collected during the Passover festival, Peter and Jesus had not yet paid.
Jesus showed how silly the situation was. A king’s subjects, not the king’s children, pay for the upkeep on the palace. The Jerusalem temple was God the Father’s house. Jesus was his Son, yet he was expected to pay the tax. Nevertheless, to obey the law, Jesus produced money for Peter and himself from the mouth of a fish.
Who is the greatest? – Luke 9:46-50; Matthew 18
谁最大？– 路加福音9：46-50 马太福音18
Jesus had withdrawn several times in order to think about his work and death. At the same time he wanted to continue teaching his disciples. Scripture describes some of the issues Jesus discussed with his disciples near the end of his fourth withdrawal.
About who was most important. The disciples debated “which of them would be the greatest” (Luke 9:46). The answer: a person becomes great by being humble, not by seeking glory for himself.
About true and false teachers. John noted “we saw a man driving out demons in your name and we tried to stop him, because he is not one of us” (Luke 9:49). The answer: service in Christ’s name, not a ranking with the apostles, is God-pleasing.
About giving offense. Jesus gave a stern warning about giving offense and causing others to lose their faith. He also showed the foolishness of allowing temptations to continue, temptations which could cause a person to fall from faith.
About the value of the individual. Looking at a little child, Jesus spoke of the value of individual souls. The tiny child is important to God and must not be prevented from coming to him. The lost sheep must be returned to the sheep pen. How far should believers go to return a brother to the flock? Jesus explained the proper steps in disciplining church members.
About forgiveness. Peter asked how often he should forgive someone who sinned against him. Jesus answered: always. Speaking in a parable Christ taught Peter that when the issue of forgiving someone arises he should remember the debt God has forgiven him.
Appendix: Outlines of the Four Gospels 附录：四福音书大纲
The 4 Gospels contain 7 main events. 四福音书包括了七个主要事件。
Only Luke contains all 7 of these events. 只有路加福音包括了所有这七个事件。
Matthew presents 5 of them as indicated below 马太福音讲了下列五个
John’s Birth 约翰的出生 Jesus’ Birth 耶稣的出生 John’s Ministry 约翰的事工 Jesus’ Ministry 耶稣的事工 The Crucifixion 上十字架 The Resurrection 复活 The Ascension 升天
- 1:1-4:16 The Genealogy and birth of Jesus and the beginning of his ministry 1:1-4:16 家谱，耶稣的出生，耶稣开始他的传道
- 4:17-7:27 Jesus’ Galilean ministry and the Sermon on the Mount 4:17-7:27 耶稣在加利利传道和登山宝训
- 7:28-10:42 Ten Miracles; Jesus’ directions to his apostles 7:28-10:42 十个神迹；耶稣对门徒的教导
- 11:1-13:52 Growing Conflicts – Jesus’ parables by the sea 11:1-13:52 越来越多的冲突 - 耶稣在海边的比喻
- 13:53-18:35 Jesus’ withdrawals – Sermon on humility and forgiveness 13:53-18:35 耶稣的退隐 - 关于谦卑和饶恕的教导
- 19:1-25:46 Final conflict with the Jews – Jesus’ teaching on the Last Days 19:1-25:46 与犹太人最后的冲突 - 耶稣在最后几天的教导
- 26:1-28:20 Jesus’ suffering, death and resurrection 26:1-28:20 耶稣的受难，死亡和复活
Introduction Summary of John’s ministry and Jesus’ baptism/temptation (1:1-13)
- Jesus’ Galilean Ministry (1:14-6:30) 耶稣的加利利事工（1：14-6：30）
- Jesus’ Withdrawals (6:31-9:32) 耶稣的退隐（6：31-9：32）
- Jesus’ Last Journey to Jerusalem (9:33-11:19) 耶稣最后到耶路撒冷的旅程（9：33-11：19）
- Jesus; Last Conflict with the Jewish Leaders & Eschatological Discourses (11:20-14:25) 耶稣；最后与犹太人领袖的冲突以及神学的教导（11：20-14：25）
- Jesus’ Suffering, Death, Resurrection and Ascension (14:25-16:19) 耶稣的受难，死亡，复活和升天（14：25-16：19）
Conclusion Summary of the disciples’ ministry (16:20)
Introduction (1:1-4) 简介（1：1-4）
- Infancy and Childhood of John and Jesus (1:5-2:52) 约翰和耶稣的婴儿期和儿童期（1：5-2：52）
- Ministry of John / Baptism and Temptation of Jesus (3:1-4:13) 约翰的事工/耶稣的受洗和受试探（3：1-4：13）
- Jesus’ Galilean Ministry (4:14-9:6) 耶稣在加利利的事工（4：14-9：6）
- Jesus’ Withdrawals (9:7-9:51) 耶稣的退隐（9：7-9：51）
- Jesus’ Journey to Jerusalem (9:51-19:27) 耶稣到耶路撒冷的旅程（（9：51-19：27）
- Jesus’ Last Days in Jerusalem (19:28-21:38) 耶稣在耶路撒冷最后的日子（19：28-21：38）
- Jesus’ Suffering, Death, Resurrection & Ascension (22:1-24:53) 耶稣的受难，死亡，复活和升天（22：1-24：53）
Introduction (1:1-18) 简介（1：1-18）
- He Came to His Own (1:19-4:54) 到自己的地方来（1：19-4：54）
- His Own Received Him Not (5:1-12:50) 自己的人倒不接待他
- But to as many as received him he gave the right to become children of God (chapters 13-17) 凡接待他的，他就赐他们权柄，作 神的儿女 （13-17章）
- God’s Son is Glorified by suffering, death and resurrection (chapters 18-20) 神的儿子因为受难，死亡和复活而得荣耀（18-20 章）
Conclusion (chapter 21) 结论 （21章）
Review of Lesson 8 第八课复习
The three main Feasts in Israel were Passover, Pentecost and Tabernacles. Find out where and when these celebrations took place each year and who was expected to attend them.
John’s Gospel refers to the Jewish religious leaders as “the Jews”. How is it clear that John is not referring to all the Jews when he mentions “the Jews”?
Read Romans 4:13-17. Who are the true children of Abraham?
Read Luke 10:38-42. Was it wrong for Martha to prepare a meal for Jesus? What ordinary tasks do you do for Jesus? What is the most important “task” all of us have to do?
Review the appendix in this lesson (Outlines of the 4 Gospels). Which is your favorite Gospel. Explain why this is the case.