第九章 耶稣面向耶路撒冷而去 – 第一部分
In the previous lessons … 在前面的课程中
I. The Birth and Childhood of John and of Jesus
II. The Baptism and Temptation of Jesus
III. Jesus ministers in Judea (Spring 27-Spring 28 – about 1 year)
耶稣在犹大传道 （公元27 年春 – 28 年春 - 约一年）
IV. Jesus ministers in Galilee (Spring 28-Spring 29 – about 1 year)
耶稣在加利利传道 （公元28年春 – 29年春 -约一年）
V. Jesus’ Withdrawals (Spring 29 to Fall 29 – about 6 months)
耶稣的退隐 （公元29年春 到29年秋 - 大约六个月）
VI. Later Judean Ministry and back to Galilee (Fall of 29)
VII. The death journey – from Galilee – ultimately to Jerusalem (Fall of 29 – Spring of 30)
死亡之旅 – 从加利利 – 最后到耶路撒冷（公元后二十九年秋 – 三十年春）
Jesus sets his face for Jerusalem – Luke 9:51-56
耶稣面向耶路撒冷而去 – 路加福音9：51-56
After the Feast of the Tabernacles was over, Jesus and the disciples returned to Galilee. Soon, however, Jesus left for Jerusalem once again (Luke 9:51). This time he knew he was on his way to suffer and die for the sins of all mankind. This time Jesus decided to travel through Samaria, not around it.
With a group of up to 100 people Jesus came near a Samaritan village. The villagers refused to give hospitality to Jesus because he was going to Jerusalem. They felt their own Mt. Gerizim was the holy place for worship. James and John thought that Jesus should call down fire from heaven to destroy the village (2 Kings 1:10-12). The Samaritans refused to receive the One who was to be worshiped, and the disciples forgot that Jesus’ mission was to save, not destroy souls (Luke 9:55).
Jesus heals 10 men who have leprosy – Luke 17:11-19
耶稣医治了十个麻风病人 – 路加福音17：11-19
One day as Jesus walked along the border between Samaria and Galilee he heard the cry of ten poor men. They cried out, “Jesus, Master, have pity on us!” (Luke 17:13). They had leprosy for which there was no cure (see Chapter 3). Jesus told them to go and show themselves to the priests as the Old Testament commanded (see Leviticus 13-14). As they went they were cured.
There are several lessons to be learned from this story. First, this ten-in-one miracle shows Jesus’ power. He did not speak to the disease or touch the lepers, but healed them from a distance. From this we can conclude that Jesus even from heaven can help us in with our earthly problems. Second, the lepers showed great faith, for they obeyed Jesus without questioning. We should also remember that faith is accepting Christ and his Word without any doubts. Finally, there is the sad truth that few are “found to return and give praise to God” (Luke 17:18). This sad fact should help us understand our own lack of thanks and should encourage us to often say “thank you” to God for all his blessings.
Jesus and the 72 – Luke 10:1-24
耶稣和七十二门徒 – 路加福音10：1-24
The unfriendly Samaritans did not stop Jesus from his mission or cool his love for sinful mankind. Soon he sent 72 disciples on a preaching tour. The instructions they received were similar to those given the Twelve Apostles earlier (see Chapter 6).
There were several reasons for sending out the disciples at this particular time. First, just as Jesus had sent two disciples on ahead into the Samaritan village to announce his coming, so the 72 would go into areas where he was not well known (Perea, Judea) and prepare for his arrival. Second, Jesus knew he did not have many more days on earth. Others would have to continue his work. This preaching tour would serve as on-the-job training for such ministers.
The results of the preaching tour were great. The message of Jesus struck hard at Satan. Then Christ said a prayer like one of his earlier ones (Matthew 11:25-27).
Elsewhere things were very much the same. The cities of Korizin, Bethsaida, and Capernaum are cases in point. During his ministry Jesus had visited the first two of these cities and had performed mighty miracles. Then there was Capernaum, the most honored of all cities, Jesus’ mission headquarters. There the local people had witnessed many of his miracles.
While it is true that the people of these cities were impressed by Jesus’ miracles and flocked to see him and to have him satisfy their needs, nevertheless, “they did not repent” (Matthew 11:20). To them, Jesus was a doer of good deeds, not a long awaited and much needed Savior from sin. Consequently, Jesus pronounced a curse. On Judgment Day it would be more tolerable for the pagans of ancient Tyre, Sidon, and Sodom than for the three cities of Jesus’ day. (By the way, this story also shows that there are different amounts of suffering in hell.)
In spite of so many unbelievers Christ’s ministry was like a fruit tree - it did produce fruit or results. As promised (Isaiah 55:11), God’s Word does change the hearts of people. Looking on the brighter side, Jesus thanked his Father for those whose hearts had been changed. Finally, to show that God’s grace was for everyone, Jesus invited all people to exchange the guilt of their sins for his spiritual rest, peace and security.
The Parable of the Good Samaritan – Luke 10:25-37
好撒马利亚人的比喻 – 路加福音10:25-37
The next several events recorded by St. Luke (10:25-13:21) cannot be put into exact order. However, we will follow the order given in Luke’s Gospel.
The parable of the Good Samaritan is one of the best known in all of Scripture. Today people who help others are often called Good Samaritans. Hospitals are often given this name. Most people think this parable teaches us that God wants us to help our fellow human beings.
However, the parable was spoken to answer a question about salvation, not about being a good neighbor. An expert in the law came to Jesus asking, “What must I do to inherit eternal life?” Jesus asked the man what he thought. The expert then quoted Deuteronomy 6:4-5 and Leviticus 19:18 (words which were said every morning and evening by religious Jews). When Jesus told the man to obey those commands, the man asked who his neighbor was. Jesus then told the man this parable. It did not answer the question “Who is my neighbor?” but “Whose neighbor am I?” If the expert in the law had taken this parable to heart he would have confessed his own sinfulness and would have admitted his need of a Savior.
Questions about marriage and divorce – Matthew 19:3-12; Mark 10:2-12
关于结婚和离婚的问题 – 马太福音19：3-12 马可福音10：2-12
By now it was March of A.D. 30. For six months Jesus had wandered throughout Perea, Judea, and into Samaria. However, during this time he was coming always closer to his death. Now he visited Perea for the last time, and from there went on towards Jerusalem.
Jesus’ first miracle was at the wedding in Cana. Now near the end of his ministry the subject of marriage was raised. In Deuteronomy 24:1 Moses spoke about divorce. During Jesus’ time followers of the famous Jewish teacher Hillel thought this verse meant a man could divorce his wife for almost any reason, including burning his dinner. The followers of the teacher Shammai, on the other hand, said that people could divorce only when there was a moral sin by one, but that might be as simple as a woman appearing on the street without a veil covering her face. The Pharisees now asked Jesus about divorce hoping that he would take sides in the argument. Jesus refused to do this. Instead, he spoke about what a marriage is and that it is God’s plan that husband and wife remain married for life.
Was Moses wrong in granting divorce? Jesus pointed out that Moses did not command or favor divorce, but only permitted it, and only then as a way of avoiding further sin. The Old Testament says Christians are allowed to divorce only in cases of adultery. Later in the New Testament Paul says that abandonment is also a proper reason for divorce (1 Corinthians 7:15).
Should men remain single? No. Man is suited for a married life. But some men may remain unmarried if they are able to live that way without being tempted to sin.
One of the reasons for marriage was to raise children. Jesus held little children in his arms and blessed them. He made it clear that the Kingdom of God is for them, too. In other words, because little children are sinners, Christ also wants them to come to faith and receive his forgiveness.
Jesus and the little children – Luke 18:15-17
耶稣和小孩子 – 路加福音18：15-17
Jesus defended and shared the gospel with people in society who were otherwise ignored or ostracized. Jesus invited all people, women and men; adults and children to be saved through faith in him.
In this account, Jesus defends the children. Even his own disciples didn’t understand how precious the children are to Jesus. When parents brought their children – even the infants! – to Jesus, the Twelve tried to send the parents away with their children. Jesus rebuked his disciples. Jesus said, “Let the little children come to me!”
We do well to remember this important truth about children. Children who believe in Jesus are an example of humble faith for us to imitate.
The rich young man – Luke 18:18-27
有钱的年轻人 – 路加福音18：18-27
As Jesus continued on his journey a rich young ruler came and asked: “Teacher, what good thing must I do to get eternal life?” The man was trying to earn his own salvation. If a person would save himself he must obey the Law perfectly. While the young man felt he had done just that, Jesus opened his eyes. The man loved his money more than God, a breaking of the first commandment.
If a person cannot save himself, how can he be saved? Jesus’ answer was clear, “With man this is impossible, but with God all things are possible” (Matthew 19:26). A person is saved by the gracious will of God which the sinner only accepts.
Heavenly rewards for those who follow Jesus in service – Luke 18:28-30
赐给跟随耶稣服事之人的天国赏赐 – 路加福音18：28-30
Does it cost to follow Jesus? Yes, it does. Is the cost worth it? Yes, it is. In this life we may have to say farewell to things and to people in order to follow the Lord’s will and fulfill our calling. But the Lord is able to restore our losses. Perhaps the Lord will do this already in this life. But the Lord will certainly do this in eternity. He will give us much more than we may have lost in this life.
Jesus in Jerusalem for Dedication (Hanukkah) – John 10:22-44
Sometime near mid-December Jesus reached Jerusalem where he celebrated the Feast of Dedication (Hanukkah). The feast itself was a small festival in the Jewish calendar remembering the time in 165 B.C. when the temple was cleansed after having been made unclean by Gentiles. Since both the temple and homes were brightly lit with candles, the celebration was called the Festival of Lights. It was appropriate that the “true light” of the world (John 1:9) should once again shine forth in the temple, but as John (1:5) said, “The light shines in the darkness, but the darkness has not understood it.”
It was a cold winter day as Jesus walked along the temple porch, but the real chill was in the hearts of many. Jewish religious leaders crowded around Jesus. They were still demanding proof that he was the Messiah. He had given such proof before, but they had refused to believe it.
The words Jesus spoke to these hardened unbelievers are still comforting to Christians today. God the Father and God the Son, equal in power, knowledge, and love, work as a team to preserve the believers.
The Jewish leaders tried to extinguish the Light with stones, so the Lord and his disciples went back to Perea. There they remained for a time.
Jesus rebukes the Jewish Leaders – Luke 11:37-54
耶稣斥责犹太人的领袖 – 路加福音11：37-54
Today it is popular to think that Jesus was a gentle person. Many people cannot believe Jesus could be as harsh as his words in Luke 11:37-54. But we must simply accept the simple words of Scripture. Jesus’ love was great even for the Pharisees and lawyers. He struck fear in their hearts with these strong words. He tried to wake them up from their false beliefs. Thus Jesus accused the Pharisees of just going through the actions of religion, of doing good outwardly while inside their souls were spiritually dead. The experts of religious law were even worse. They were not only fooling themselves; they were taking others to hell with them.
Jesus’ warnings did not lead to the result he wished. Instead, the Pharisees and lawyers continued to ask him questions hoping he would say something wrong so they could attack him.
Be Prepared For God’s Judgment 为上帝的审判做准备
Fear God above men – Luke 12:1-12
敬畏上帝高于敬畏人 – 路加福音12：1-12
Jesus now turned to his disciples, warned them against the Pharisees’ teaching, and encouraged them in their defense of the gospel. It should not surprise us that Jesus repeated statements he had made earlier. After all, good teachers often repeat their main points.
The Parable of the Rich Fool – Luke 12:13-21
富有傻瓜的比喻 – 路加福音12：13-21
While Jesus was speaking to the disciples, a crowd gathered to see the man who had been so bold as to argue with the Pharisees. Then someone in the crowd said to Jesus, “Teacher, tell my brother to divide the inheritance with me” (Luke 12:13).
This person was not interested in Jesus’ message of joy, peace, and pardon; he was only interested in his own financial affairs. Jesus answered, “Man, who appointed me to be a judge between you?” (Luke 12:14). Jesus refused to consider his case. He was saying that the spiritual and earthly kingdoms are and must be kept separate. Fifteen centuries later the leaders of the Lutheran church wrote:
“Therefore, church and government are not to be mixed up. The power of the church has its own mission to preach the Gospel and offer the sacraments. It should not interfere in the job of the government, nor help appoint rulers in the world, nor set aside government laws, nor stop people from obeying the law, nor interfere with decisions about any government laws or agreements, nor insist to government rulers which laws should be set up to regulate the form of government. For Christ says, “My kingdom is not of this world,” and again, “Who made me a judge over you?”
Do Not Worry; Keep Watch – Luke 12:22-59
不要忧虑；一直警醒 – 路加福音12：22-59
This question of the man in the crowd made Jesus so concerned that he began to discuss attitudes toward earthly possessions. In the parable of the rich fool he warned against selfishness and greed. Turning to the disciples he taught them not to worry. The two sins are cousins. “Greed can never get enough, worry is afraid it might not have enough.”
The man of God must always be prepared for Christ’s Second Coming as Jesus himself taught. He must not become wrapped up in earthly matters. Before that coming, however, difficult trials will happen to people. The cross divides mankind. Disciples who are faithful, unlike others, respond to these warning signs.
Repent or Perish – Luke 13:1-9
悔改或灭亡 – 路加福音13：1-9
Jesus’ warnings about judgment day started the crowd thinking. Remember that Jews often thought disasters were God’s punishment for particular sins. Therefore, they decided that this was the right time to discuss the matter of a recent temple tragedy. Roman soldiers had killed some Galileans who had been offering sacrifices. Jesus noted that this and another tragic event where punishments on individual sins. Rather, they were signs meant to warn of God’s coming judgment on all those who had not repented. To make this point Jesus spoke a parable about a fig tree that produced no fruit.
Review of Chapter 9 第九章复习
Read Isaiah 50:7 and Luke 9:51.
a. Who is speaking in Isaiah?
b. What does the expression “I have set my face like flint” mean?
c. What does this statement tell you about the One who says these things?
Read Luke 10:1. Think: Why did Jesus send out these followers “two by two”? Is this still a good strategy for the church to use when doing evangelism?
Review Luke 13:1-9. How does the parable of the fig tree fit the occasion on which Jesus taught this parable?
Digging Deeper: Jesus certainly taught the same lesson or gave the same warning more than once. Give an example from chapter 9 of a warning or a lesson which Jesus taught on at least one other occasion.