(GSLTW pages 497-518; Chinese 2 pp. 454-475)



Lecture 19: Baptism and the Lord’s Supper

A. Baptism

  1. By ______________. Jn 1:33; Mk 1:4; Jn 3:5 and by Jesus’ disciples. Jn 3:22; 4:2; Acts 19:3,5

  2. Baptism is a ________ and ________institution. Mt 28:18-20; AC XIV Our churches teach that no one should publicly teach in the Church, or administer the Sacraments, without a rightly ordered call.

  3. Who is to be baptized?

    a. All ________. Mt 28:19

    b. Adults after ________. Acts 2:41;8:26-40; 10:47-48

    c. Little children. Mt 28:19; Mk 10:13-15

    d. ________. Lk 18:15-17; Jn 3:5-6; Gen 17:9-14; Col 2:11-13; 1 Cor 10:1-2; Acts 16:33;

    AC IX Concerning Baptism, our churches teach that Baptism is necessary for salvation [Mark 16:16] and that God’s grace is offered through Baptism [Titus 3:4–7]. 2 They teach that children are to be baptized [Acts 2:38–39]. Being offered to God through Baptism, they are received into God’s grace. Apology IX:51 It clearly follows, therefore, that infants are to be baptized, because salvation is offered with Baptism; Large Catechism “Of Infant Baptism” The Baptism of infants is pleasing to Christ, as is proved well enough from His own work. For God sanctifies many of those who have been baptized as infants and has given them the Holy Spirit. Mt 18:6; Tit 3:5

B. The Lord’s Supper

  1. Names: the Lord’s Table 1 Cor 10:21; the Lord’s Supper 1 Cor 11:20; the Breaking of Bread Acts 2:42; the ________Mk 14:23; Holy Communion 1 Cor 10:16-17; ________ (Missa)

  2. A divine and permanent institution Eph 3:20 Lk 22:19 Acts 2:42 1 Cor 11:26

  3. The elements Lk 22:7 Mt 26:29 1 Cor 11:21 FC VII:14 They confess, according to the words of Irenaeus, that in this Sacrament there are two things, a heavenly and an earthly. So they hold and teach that with the bread and wine the body and blood of Christ are truly and essentially present, offered, and received. Small Catechism What is the Sacrament of the Altar? Answer: It is the true body and blood of our Lord Jesus Christ, under the bread and wine, for us Christians to eat and to drink, instituted by Christ Himself.

  4. ________¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬_____1 Cor 11:26-28 1 Cor 10:16 SA III, VI:5 As for transubstantiation, we care nothing about the sophistic cunning by which they teach that bread and wine leave or lose their own natural substance so that only the appearance and color of bread remain, and not true bread. For it is in perfect agreement with Holy Scriptures that there is, and remains, bread, as Paul himself calls it, “The bread that we break” [1 Corinthians 10:16] and “Let a person … so eat of the bread” [1 Corinthians 11:28].

  5. ________¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬_____FC VII:2, Christ’s true essential body and blood is absent from the consecrated bread and wine in the Holy Supper as far as the highest heaven is from the earth. For their own words state this, “We say that Christ’s body and blood are as far from the signs as the earth is distant from the highest heaven.” 64 At the table and during the Supper He offers His disciples natural bread and natural wine, which He calls His true body and true blood. At the same time He says, “Eat” and “drink.” In view of the circumstances, this command clearly cannot be understood as anything other than oral eating and drinking. However, this is not in a crude, carnal, Capernaitic way, but in a supernatural way, beyond understanding. Jn 15:5 Eph 1:22-23 1 Cor 10:16; 11:27-29 Jn 6:53-56

  6. Which church has the Lord’s Supper? 1 Cor 11:20-22 FC VII:85 Nothing has the nature of a Sacrament apart from the use instituted by Christ or apart from the action divinely instituted. This means, if Christ’s institution is not kept as He appointed it, then there is no Sacrament. 32 In the same way I also say and confess that in the sacrament of the altar the true body and blood of Christ are orally eaten and drunk in the bread and wine, even if the priests who distribute them or those who receive them do not believe or otherwise misuse the sacrament.

  7. The ________¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬_____union FC VIII:42 Indeed, you must say that the person (pointing to Christ) suffers, and dies. But this person is truly God, and therefore it is correct to say: the Son of God suffers. Although, so to speak, the one part (namely, the divinity) does not suffer, nevertheless the person, who is God, suffers in the other part (namely, in the humanity). VII:35 In addition to Christ’s and St. Paul’s expressions (the bread in the Supper is the body of Christ or the communion of the body of Christ), the following forms are also used: under the bread, with the bread, in the bread. With these words the papistic transubstantiation may be rejected and the sacramental union of the bread’s unchanged essence and Christ’s body may be shown, 38 This union of Christ’s body and blood with the bread and wine is not a personal union (as that of the two natures in Christ). 74-76 Jesus Christ’s true and almighty words, which He spoke at the first institution, were effective not only at the first Supper. They endure, are valid, operate, and are still effective. So in all places where the Supper is celebrated according to Christ’s institution and His words are used, Christ’s body and blood are truly present, distributed, and received, because of the power and effectiveness of the words that Christ spoke at the first Supper.

  8. The ________¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬_____of the sacrament FC VII:25 The Word by which it became a Sacrament and was instituted does not become false because of the person or his unbelief. For Christ does not say, “If you believe or are worthy, you receive My body and blood.” No, He says, “Take, eat and drink; this is My body and blood.” 32 In the same way I also say and confess that in the sacrament of the altar the true body and blood of Christ are orally eaten and drunk in the bread and wine, even if the priests who distribute them or those who receive them do not believe or otherwise misuse the sacrament. It does not rest on man’s belief or unbelief but on the Word and ordinance of God.

  9. Consecration 1 Cor 10:16 FC VII:83 However, this blessing, or the recitation of the words of Christ’s institution alone, does not make a Sacrament if the entire action of the Supper, as it was instituted by Christ, is not kept. (For example, it is not kept when the consecrated bread is not distributed, received, and partaken of, but is enclosed, sacrificed, or carried about.) Christ’s command “This do” must be observed unseparated and inviolate.

  10. “Take, eat, drink” Mt 26:27 Mk 14:23 1 Cor 11:26-30 FC VII:24 For here we conclude and say, “Even though an imposter takes or distributes the Sacrament, a person still receives the true Sacrament, that is, Christ’s true body and blood, just as truly as a person who receives or administers it in the most worthy way.” For the Sacrament is not founded upon people’s holiness, but upon God’s Word.

  11. ________¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬_____eating and drinking FC VII:63,64 Mk 14:22 1 Cor 10:16 FC VII 61-65 This spiritual eating is nothing other than faith. The other eating of Christ’s body is oral or sacramental, when Christ’s true, essential body and blood are orally received and partaken of in the Holy Supper by all who eat and drink the consecrated bread and wine in the Supper. 1 Cor 11:27 FC VII 60 It is not only godly, pious, and believing Christians who orally receive Christ’s ‹true› body and blood in the Sacrament. So do unworthy, godless hypocrites, like Judas and his ilk, who have no spiritual communion with Christ, and who go to the Lord’s Table without true repentance and conversion to God.

LESSON 19 Assignment: Baptism and the Lord’s Supper (GSLTW pages 497-518; Chinese 2 pp. 454-475)

  1. Identify six reasons why people say we should not baptize infants.

    Evaluate them in the light of the Bible.

    a. cf. Mt 28:19,20; Mk 10:13-16.

    b. cf. Ps 51:5

    c. cf. Eph 2:3

    d. cf. Tit 3:5

    e. cf. Mt 18:6

    f. cf. Ac 16:15, 33

  2. Explain: We baptize infants and then instruct them. We instruct adults and then we baptize them.

  3. Who normally carries out the work of baptism?

    Who may baptize in an emergency?

    What constitutes an emergency?

  4. Can a person be saved without baptism? Explain. Cf. Mk 16:16.

  5. What comfort can we offer parents whose child dies before birth? Luke 1:41

  6. What is the function of sponsors in connection with baptism?

  7. Was the baptism of John the Baptist valid? Explain. Acts 19:1-6.

  8. Explain the following Roman Catholic errors concerning baptism.

    a. ex opere operantis

    b. ex opere operato

    c. Baptism gives infused grace

    d. Baptism destroys original sin, leaving concupiscence

    e. confirmation completes baptism

    f. Baptism gives forgiveness only up to the time of the Baptism

  9. Explain the following Eastern Orthodox errors concerning baptism.

    a. Baptism restores man to his original righteousness

    b. Baptism confers a grace which enables man to proceed toward the mystical union with God.

    c. Chrismation completes baptism.

  10. Explain the following Reformed errors concerning baptism.

    a. Baptism is a sign of forgiveness.

    b. Faith must precede baptism.

    c. Baptism must be by immersion.

  11. What was the Donatist error concerning baptism?

  12. What was the Anabaptist error concerning baptism?

  13. What common theme runs through the four accounts of the words of institution for the Lord’s Supper? List where the four accounts are written.

  14. Explain:

    a. The Lord’s Supper meets the criteria for a sacrament.

    b. The Lord’s Supper is an individual application of the word.

    c. The Lord’s Supper is the visible word.

  15. Identify two major differences between baptism and the Lord’s Supper.

  16. List four reasons why the words of institution must be taken in their literal sense.



    c. Cf. FC SD VII: 45


  17. Define:

    a. concurrent union

    b. mystical union

    c. personal union

  18. Explain: Scripture teaches the sacramental union. Cf. FC SD VII: 36-38; FC SD VII: 35

  19. Explain:

    a. Scripture teaches the real presence of the body and the blood of Christ.

    b. Scripture teaches there are four elements present in the Lord’s Supper.

  20. Explain: bread and wine are present in the Lord’s Supper “locally, naturally, and comprehensibly.”

  21. Explain: the body and the blood of Christ are present in the sacrament “illocally, supernaturally, and incomprehensibly.” FC SD VII: 100

  22. Distinguish between the “spiritual eating” in the sacrament (cf. FC SD VII: 61,62) and the “oral” or “sacramental” eating” in the sacrament (Cf. FC SD VII: 63-65)

  23. Explain and refute the idea of “Capernaitic” or cannibalistic eating of the body and the blood of Christ.

  24. Which are the material elements we are to use in the Lord’s Supper?

  25. Discuss :

    a. the type of bread used in the Lord’s Supper.

    b. the use of grape juice in the Lord’s Supper.

  26. Explain: Nothing has the nature of a sacrament apart from the use instituted by Christ.

    Cf. FC SD: VII: 85-87.

  27. Which three acts make up the “use” of the sacrament? Explain each.

    a. Cf. FC SD VII: 74-76; FC SD VII: 79-82



  28. What if the officiant runs out of the bread or the wine in the distribution of the sacrament?

  29. Why is it pointless to try to determine when the sacramental presence and union occur?

    Cf. FC SD VII: 83-84.

  30. What happens when a church body changes Christ’s words of institution? Cf. FC SD VII: 3

  31. Why is the formula for distribution of such importance?

  32. Explain: the mode of distribution is an adiaphoron.

  33. What are the “reliquiae” and what should be done with them?